Workhorse Group Inc (WKHS.PK) Company Profile

The Company’s HorseFly Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is designed for the package delivery market as well as other commercial applications.

Workhorse Group Inc., formerly AMP Holding Inc., incorporated on November 13, 2007, is a development-stage company. The W22 chassis is designed to meet the needs of the recreational vehicle market for weight ratings up to 26,000 GVW. The W62 chassis is designed for the 19,500 to 23,500 GVW vehicle market. The Company’s chassis include W88, W22, W42 and W62. E-GEN is an electric drive that has a gasoline/propane or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine that functions as an auxiliary generator that runs when the battery reaches a certain level of depletion, the vehicle is in PARK and the key is out. Powertrain includes E-GEN and AMP E-100. The Company’s products include trucks comprising powertrain and chassis. AMP E-100, an all-electric, medium-duty truck, is the second generation electric power-train. The W42 chassis is designed for the 12,000 to 14,500 Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) vehicle market. The Company designs, develops, manufactures and sells medium-duty trucks with powertrain components under the Workhorse chassis brand. The W88 chassis is designed to meet the needs of a range of customers. It includes a single electric motor with no transmission and Lithium Ion batteries giving it a range of up to 100 miles.

The Company competes with Ford Motor Company, Freightliner, Electric Vehicles International and Smith Electric Vehicles.

2001 index volume 75. – Free Online Library

The Terrible Power of a Minor Guilt: Literary

Essays tr. Jr. Peter

Cole Yahya Hijazi Gabriel Levin 404

Tsakalakis, Thomas Ke tora, kati endelos kenouryio! W188

Alechinsky, Pierre SEE Salah Stetie

Atlan, Liliane Petites bibles pour mauvais temps W135

Karpati, Paul SEE Laszlo Bito

Venturi, Maria Incantesimo 383

Bayly, Jaime Los amigos que perdi W178

Malroux, Claire A Long-Gone Sun tr. Alok Bhalla


Hall, Rodney SEE Max Williams

Relatos vertiginosos: Antologia de cuentos minimos ed. Fuego que engendra fuego / Fire That Engenders

Fire 398

Muschg, Adolf Sutters Gluck 366

Ribas Talens, Javier El aprendiz A220

Commere, Pascal Vessies, lanternes, autres betes cornues 361

Hassinen, Pirjo Mansikoita Marraskuussa A163

George, Emery Compass Card: One Hundred Villanelles 337

Hallmundsson, Hallberg Sneidar — ekki af osti (Umhendur II) 377

Carling, Finn Forstenede oyeblikk 379

Vormweg, Heinrich Der andere Deutsche. A84

Mahfuz, Najib front cover of Spring issue

Matar, Muhammad ‘Afifi 275

Milosz, Czeslaw W54

Miller, Elizabeth Gamble 294

Morris, Mervyn W3, W77

Pineau, Gisele front cover of Summer/Autumn issue, A8, A17

Rio, Nela 299

Rivera, Tomas W82

Rodriguez, Claudio 294

Salamun, Tomaz W61

Scliar, Moacyr A90, back cover of Summer/Autumn issue

Sorbian festival processions A42

Sorbian signposts A45

Syrian bottle 201, 224

Taha, Mahmoud Ceramics and Calligraphy 202, 203

Voznesensky, Andrei W35 — Portrait of Allen Ginsberg W30 — Fresh

Vegetables Face W32 — Nabokov W33

COPYRIGHT 2002 University of Oklahoma

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Paolini, Marco, Gabriele Vacis The Story of Vajont ed. Nick W177,398,401,A222

Hitchins, Keith 320,412,A140,A234

Horn, Pierre L. Okot Benge Alex Bangirana


Carson, Ciaran Selected Poems A152

Langa, Mandla The Memory of Stones W99

Persaud, Sasenarine The Hungry Sailor A156

Al-Bazei, Saad Tension in the House: The Contemporary Poetry of

Arabia 267

Hoban, Russell Angelica’s Grotto A162

Hatch, Ronald B. Julia Shirek Smith 358

Vacis, Gabriele SEE Marco Paolini

Gomori, Gyorgy [George] Valtott hangokon: Szerepversek es ujabb

versek W131 — Magnetic Poles: Essays on Modern Polish and Comparative

Literature A214

Nikram, Anita SEE Ali Erfan

Bianchini, Angela The Edge of Europe trs. W165

Muinzer, Louis W156,379

Muller-Bergh, Klaus A235

Naghibi, Nima A137,

Narayan, Shyamala A. Imre Goldstein W132

Monenembo, Tierno L’ aine des orphelins W94

Zink, Dionys SEE Lance Henson

Agbabi, Patience Transformatrix W118

Tomlinson, Charles The Vineyard Above the Sea W122

Ndione, Abasse Ramata A123

Olson, Toby Write Letter to Billy 333

Berberova, Nina The Tattered Cloak and Other Stories tr. W138,360

Hutchings, William 329,342

Ingwersen, Faith A198

Ireland, Susan 307,A113

Isaacson, Lanae Hjortsvang W154(2),373(2),374,377,A189(2),


Iwamoto, Yoshio 321,A137

Jacobs, Rita D. SEE Raymond Carver

Das, K.C. Clare Cavanagh W171

van Toorn, Willem Gedichten 1960-1997 A191

Uganda Poetry Anthology 2000 eds. Ramanujan

Lyngstad, Sverre SEE Knut Hamsun

Mambrini, Miriam A outra metade W190

Biggins, Michael SEE Tomaz Salamun

Yehoshua, Abraham B. Alastair McEwen A235

Lammers, Wayne P. 402

Wickersham, Erlis W146,370,A184

Wolf, Gregory H. SEE Angela Bianchini

Davies, Grahame SEE Oxygen

Ghosh, Amitav The Glass Palace A132

Abele, Inga Nakts pragmaticke A167

Davies, Lewis SEE Mama’s Baby (Papa’s Maybe)

Kumpfmuller, Michael Hampels Fluchten A182

Snellman, Anja Aura A163

Salamun, Tomaz Feast ed. Marian

Schwartz A211

Oxygen: Beirdd newydd o Gymru / New Poets from Wales eds. SEE Shuntaro Tanikawa

Doyle, Peter Iurii Dombrovskii: Freedom Under Totalitarianism W168

Siblewski, Klaus a komma punkt ernst jandl: Ein Leben in Texten und

Bildern A186

Mihailovic, Vasa SEE Price iz Tudjine

Beyala, Calixthe Comment cuisiner son mari a l’africaine W93

Heym, Stefan Die Architekten 365

Runarsson, Sigmundur Ernir Sogur af aldri og efa: Ljod og ljodsogur


Leviant, Curt SEE Isaac Bashevis Singer

Morris, Sonia SEE Hrytsko Hryhorenko

Dupin, Jacques Ecart A178

Bidisha [Bidisha Bandyopadhyay] Too Fast to Live 330

Reid, Robin Anne Ray Bradbury: A Critical Companion 341

Index of Reviews

Cummings, Ora SEE Abraham B. Emanuel Di

Pasquale A209

Hinojosa-Smith, Rolando Always Writing: A Chicano Life A64 — On

the 30th Anniversary of Tomas Rivera’s “… Nigel

Spencer, intro. Bernd Rauschenbach W150 –

Wenn – aber dann: Vorletzte Gedichte W150

De Palchi, Alfredo In cao del me paese trs. Of Fathers and the Fatherland in the Post-1995

Lebanese Exilic Novel 285

Munoz, Braulio A Storyteller: Mario Vargas Llosa Between

Civilization and Barbarism W181

Gao Xingjian The Case for Literature: The 2001 Nobel Lecture tr.

Mabel Lee W4

Burnett, Paula Derek Walcott: Politics and Poetics A122

Milosevic, Nikola Nit miholjskog leta: Nostalgija za beskonacnim


The Picador Book of African Stories ed. Kiacz

Hanania, Tony 286

Handke, Peter W78, W80

Herbert, Zbigniew W56

Hinojosa-Smith, Rolando A3, A64

Illyes, Gyula W3, W54

Jabra, Jabra Ibrahim 214, 220, 223 — A Face, 1952 216 — Self-Portrait

217 — A Face, 1951 222 — back cover of Spring


Jabra, Lamia 221

Jabra, Yousef 220

Jandl, Ernst W89

Khrushchev, Nikita W34

Kiacz, Daniel T., Karyn Lynn Gilman Celebrating 75 Years of

WLT [print] A4, A72

Le, Linda A3, A86

Le Clezio, J.M.G. Bahman Nirumand W107

Illyes, Gyula Charon’s Ferry: Fifty Poems tr. H.L. Doris Plantus-Runey,

intro. Howard Goldblatt W103

Paasilinna, Arto Ihmiskunnan loppulaukka W129

Amis, Martin Experience W126

Index of Articles

The Dual Muse: The Writer as Artist, the Artist as Writer ed. W128, 335

Lanters, Jose W115,375

Larios Vendrell, Luis W178,395,396,A220,A221,A223,A230

Larisch, Sharon A225

Leddy, Michael W119,A155,A160

Leusmann, Harald 363,A179

Levine, Etan A231

Levy, Michele 332,A217(2)

Lin, Sylvia Li-Chun W101

Lindstrom, Naomi W177,W181,398,A226

Lloyd, David W118,W124,W191,A145

Lofgren, Erik R. Edmundo Paz Soldan

Alberto Fuguet A223

Marai, Sandor Szabadulas 347

Heaney, Seamus Beowulf: A New Verse Translation, Bilingual Edition


Allen, Roger An Introduction to Arabic Literature A228 — SEE Jabra

Ibrahim Jabra


Huchel, Peter Wie soll man da Gedichte schreiben: Briefe 1925-1977

ed. Das

Kottoor, Gopi Father: Wake Us in Passing A133

Kourouma, Ahmadou Allah n’est pas oblige A120

Gray, Stephen SEE The Picador Book of African Stories

Douskova, Irena Nekdo s nozem W170

Belingheri, Daniela SEE Lance Henson

Lin, Sylvia Li-chun Between the Individual and the Collective: Gao

Xingjian’s Fiction W12

Neugebauer, Janet M. Numbers without a letter prefix refer

to the Spring issue.

Copyright 2002 Gale, Cengage Learning. Arnold A227

Vrioni, Jusuf SEE Ismail Kadare

Morris, Mervyn Five Poems W76

Mayrocker, Friederike Requiem fur Ernst Jandl A188

Johnson, Charles Soulcatcher and Other Stories A146

Salti, Ramzi A Different Leader of Men: Yusuf Idris Against Arab

Concepts of Male Homosexuality 246

Silva, Deonisio da Os guerreiros do campo W190

Walker, Alice The Way Forward Is with a Broken Heart 335

Cohen, Daniel D’humaines conciliations A169

Jones, Gail The House of Breathing 313

Field, Edward SEE Neil Derrick

Vasilenko, Svetlana Shamara and Other Stories eds. Pierre Alechinsky 357

Lovinger, Paul W. SEE Leslie Marmon Silko

Oster, Christian Une femme de menage 362

Aizpuriete, Amanda Nakts peldetaja 348

Hartling, Peter Ein Balkon aus Papier A184

Simonsuuri, Kirsti Rakkaus tuli kun lahdin maan aariin 345

Paker, Saliha SEE Latife Tekin

Hoggard, James SEE Oscar Hahn

Segovia, Tomas Poesia (1943-1997) 2d ed. Edmond Tupja W186 –

Dragoi i fildishte W186

Vicent, Manuel Son de mar 396 — La novia de Matisse A221

Gikandi, Simon Ngugi wa Thiong’o A121

Grynberg, Henryk Memorbuch 388

Bjornsson, Eysteinn I skugga heimsins W153

Mihailovic, Dragoslav Jalova jesen 391

Cheung, Dominic (Chang Ts’o) Drifting A129

Martin du Gard, Roger Lieutenant-Colonel de Maumort trs. The Nature of Native American Poetry A227

Suomalaisia nykykirjailijoita ed. Adam Schwartzman A125

Cesarani, David Arthur Koestler: The Homeless Mind W123

Faldbakken, Knut Froken Snehvit W155

De Afrikaanse poezie in duizend en enige gedichten comp. Rodney Hall 314

Carver, Raymond Call If You Need Me: The Uncollected Fiction and

Other Prose ed. W102,A130

Wu, Fatima W101,W102,A131

Wylie, Hal W96,326

Zabus, Chantal W138,351

Zdanys, Jonas 349

Zimmermann, Ulf W147,364,365,A182,A183

Ziolkowski, Margaret 389

Ziolkowski, Theodore 366,A187

Zurowsky, Jaroslaw W176,A218

Zyla, Wolodymyr T. Coeur brule et autres romances 354


Liang Xiaosheng Panic and Deaf: Two Modern Satires ed. Susanne

Baghestani 320

D’Arrigo, Stefano I fatti della fera A203

Lefevre, Kim SEE Nguyen Huy Thiep

White, Edmund SEE Allen Ginsberg

Haasse, Hella S. 388,389

Kurtz, J. Ronald B. W186

Aldama, Frederick Luis A132,A227

Allen, Roger A111

Archuleta, Elizabeth W185,408

Arnold, A. Roger W100,303,A117

LaHood, Marvin J. Lorin

Cuoco, intro. Lauro Zavala


Petrov, Aleksandar Turski Bec 391 — SEE Li Qing

Ozsvath, Zsuzanna In the Footsteps of Orpheus: The Life and Times

of Miklos Radnoti A166

Montis, Kostas Apanta: Sympleroma E’ 410

Kongoli, Fatos Le dragon d’ivoire tr. Ghost Songs: A Palestinian Love Story 403

Ramras-Rauch, Gila Remembering Yehuda Amichai 1924-2000 W86

Khadra, Yasmina L’ecrivain A113

Loy, Rosetta Ahi, Paloma A203

Petri, Gyorgy Two Poems tr. Edouard

Glissant W138

D’Aguiar, Fred Bloodlines W95

Bangirana, Alex SEE Uganda Poetry Anthology 2000

Pariani, Laura Il paese delle vocali W162

Nankov, Nikita Prazni prikazki W169

Seidel, Frederick Life on Earth A158

Camilleri, Andrea La gita a Tindari A201

Nieminen, Kai Serious Poems tr. Sonia Morris, tr. 324

Schenk, Leslie 331,A138,A147,A148,A236

Schoolfield, George C. 306,326

Savvas, Minas 409

Scheckter, John S. Jr. Sebastiano

Martelli A202

Tarkka, Pekka SEE Suomalaisia nykykirjailijoita

Bloom, Harold How to Read and Why A236

Hyltoft, Ole Barn af partiet: Erindringer 374

Arasanayagam, Jean Colonizer/Colonized: Poems from a Post Colonial

Diary 326

Palsson, Sigurdur Blar prihyrningur A196

Newland, Courttia Society Within W114

Murphy, Richard Collected Poems, 1952-2000 A155


Tschinag, Galsan Der weisse Berg A140

Giardinelli, Mempo The Tenth Circle tr. Nicholas de Lange with the author A110

Weinberger, Eliot Karmic Traces: 1993-1999 A160 — SEE Bei Dao


Williams, Max The Unforgiving Poem comp. 1 W119

Barr, Alan P. Nayra Atiya W192

Franco, Jean SEE Tununa Mercado

Stead, C.K. Paul

Karpati A165

Between Lvov, New York and Ulysses’ Ithaca: Jozef Wittlin –

Poet, Essayist, Novelist ed. Genevieve Imbot-Bichet A129

Volodine, Antoine Des anges mineurs W144

Miller, Marlowe SEE Transitions

Yasin, Patia SEE Pai Hsien-yung

Djebar, Assia So Vast the Prison tr. Brink 311

Kenne, Mel SEE Latife Tekin

Liu, Taotao see Li Qiao

Schlink, Bernhard Liebesfluchten W147

Eichmann-Leutenegger, Beatrice Flusswege A180

Baghdadi, Chawqi Les amants s’envolent vers le levant tr.

Claude Krul 406

Varis, Tuula-Liina Maan paalla paikka yksi on W129

Vafopoulos, George The Complete Poems trs. Glauco Ortolano A92

Belcher, James O. A223

Nagy, Karoly Emigransok kuldetesben, 1960-2000 W132

Raharimanana, Jean-Luc Nour, 1947 A121

Confiant, Raphael Le cahier de romances 308

Kelletat, Andreas F. Mildred Mortimer A114

Whispers from the Cotton Tree Root: Caribbean Fabulist Fiction ed.

Nalo Hopkinson A118


Banville, John Eclipse 329

de Lange, Nicholas SEE Amos Oz

Hryhorenko, Hrytsko, Lesya Ukrainka From Heart to Heart:

Women’s Voices in Ukrainian Literature 4 ed. SEE Baltasar Porcel

Asso, Francoise Rien n’est perdu 351

Reich, Peter SEE George Konrad

Marteinsson, Hjortur AM oo: Soguleg skaldsaga A195

Schuhl, Jean-Jacques Ingrid Caven 356

Chen, Hanming SEE Liang Xiaosheng

Hoffmann, Yoel The Heart Is Katmandu tr.

tr. W18o

Artalejo, Lucrecia A223

Bailey, Sharon M. Jr. W137,A172

Tarnawsky, Marta W175

Terras, Rita 370,A185(2)

Terras, Victor A212(2)

Thiher, Allen W138,W142,354,A172

Toerien, Barend J. Rupert Garcia W120

Belling, Nina Til en fremmed A189

Boyle, T.C. W183

Merlin, Lara A177

Mermier, Guy 353,361

Mihailovich, Vasa D. Jose Vasconcelos and the Writing of the Mexican

Revolution A225

Moreau, Jean-Luc SEE Ali Erfan

Haavardsholm, Espen Ost for Eden: En biografi om Johan Borgen A197

Marias, Fernando El nino de los coroneles A220

Jouet, Jacques Poemes de metro W141

Traynor, Joanna Bitch Money A151

Anderson, Barbara Long Hot Summer W109

Dhotel, Andre Poemes comme ca A173

Yan Haiping Theatrical Impulse and Posthumanism: Gao

Xingjian’s “Another Kind of Drama” W20

Ashbery, John your name here 336 — other Traditions 338

Elytis, Odysseus “From Close By”: Nine Selections trs.

Jeffrey Carson Nikos Sarris A94

Biron, Rebecca E. Lisa Schnorf W184

Hout, Syrine C. Kwame

Dawes A117

Vigevani, Alberto La febbre dei libri: Memorie de un libraio

bibliofilo A201

Haydar, Adnan SEE Rashid al-Daif — SEE Jabra Ibrahim Jabra

Queffelec, Yann Osmose 354

Owens, Rochelle Luca: Discourse on Life and Death intro. 311(2),A124(2)

Totfalusi, Istvan A166

Twitchell-Waas, Jeffrey A106,A129

Valerio-Holguin, Fernando W113,W181

Vanacek, Edwin A186

Vansant, Jacqueline A181

Vidan, Aida W170,387

Volet, Jean-Marie W96,A113,A123

Wall, Catharine E. A160

Grimm, Reinhold W151,A186

Gunnars, Kristjana 378,A192,A197

Gyorgyey, Clara W132,347

Hagen, W.M. Athar Tahir

Sandor, Andras Szerelem: Megkozelitesek 348

Schrott, Raoul Die Wuste Lop Nor W148

Sanchez Leon, Abelardo El mundo en una gota de rocio A221

Smith, Zadie White Teeth W116

Franko, Roma SEE Hrytsko Hryhorenko

Dongala, Emmanuel B. Peter Zollman,

pref. The Journey: Stories by K.C. Tess Gallagher A143

Fenton, James The Strength of Poetry: Oxford Lectures A159


Lemoine, Michel Paris chez Simenon 361

Nazareth, Peter SEE Critical Essays on Ngugi wa Thiong’o

Stories for a Winter’s Night: Short Fiction by Native

Americans ed. Sumarblus 377

Castel-Bloom, Orly Radikalim Hofshiyyim A231

Johnson, Emily Nikita Khrushchev, Andrei Voznesensky, the

Cold Spring of 1963: Documenting the End of the Post-Stalin Thaw W30

Abdul-Baki, Kathryn K. A125

De Julio, Maryann W144,357,A174

Debeljak, Ales 394

d’Heurle, Adma 355,A144

Dick, Bernard F. Hubert Spiegel 370

Harlan, Thomas Rosa A181

Carey, Peter True History of the Kelly Gang 314

Garcia, Rupert SEE Juan Felipe Herrera

Chavez-Silverman, Susana SEE Reading and Writing the Ambiente

Castillo, Roberto The Bugler / El corneta tr. Kateri Akiwenzie-Damm

Josie Douglas A239

Barrientos, Juan Jose Versiones 399

Suarez, Lucia M. James W97,308

Arrington, Melvin S. 408

Foster, David William A219,A226

Gadd, Bernard 324

Garrett, Daniel W114,A143

Gathercole, Patricia M. Alberto Vital


Stetie, Salah Cold Water Shielded ed. Nicoletta Di Ciolla

McGowan, tr. Ragini Ramachandra


Griswold, Wendy Bearing Witness: Readers, Writers, and the Novel in

Nigeria W98

Brook, Victor Hotel “Million Monkeys” and Other Stories

tr. SEE Junzo Shono

Nadas, Peter Love: A Novel tr. W126

Brown, Ashley W123,337

Brown, John L. W120,A222

Wasserman, Kimberly 400

Waters, Chris 310,312

Watts, Richard W144

Whalen, Logan E. W157,374

Ruckel, Terri Smith W135

Rudnick, Hans H. Segismundo Lince A224

Zagajewski, Adam Another Beauty tr. Paula Haydar, afterword

Adnan Haydar Michael Beard A229

Gaspar, Lorand Patmos et autres poemes A174

Komunyakaa, Yusef Talking Dirty to the Gods A153

Reda, Jacques Accidents de la circulation A172 — Le lit de la

reine A177

Seuren, Gunter Die Krotenkusser 367

Kwahule, Koffi Village fou ou Les deconnards 308

Wilbur, Richard Mayflies: New Poems and Translations W123

Strachan, Geoffrey SEE Andrei Makine

Dandova, Marta SEE Karel Capek

Murdoch, Iris Something Special: A Story ill. Thom Nairn

Dionysia Zervanou 410

Ali, Tariq The Stone Woman W111 — Shadows of the Pomegranate Tree


Vazquez-Figueroa, Alberto El Inca W179

Ruhmkorf, Peter Gedichte: Werke 1 ed. W149

Bakker, Martinus A. Vladimir Nabokov W167

Hollo, Anselm SEE Kai Nieminen

Bito, Laszlo Abraham und Isaak: Roman nach der Bibel tr. Nathalie Louisgrand 314

Krstajic, Ranko Martinov greh W172

Spark, Muriel Aiding and Abetting A150

Angelides, Claire Venerable Lady, the Sea tr. Hub Nijssen A187

Ibrahim, Sonallah Charaf ou L’honneur tr. W132,370(2),A165

Bishop, Michael 360,361,362(2),A178(2)

Bliss, Carolyn 323,A140

Boening, John A237

Boggs, Bruce A224

Booth, Marilyn 403

Boullata, Issa J. Jeannet

David Castronuovo W159

Lanz, Juan Jose Introduccion al estudio de la generacion poetica

espanola de 1968 399

Boldl, Klaus Sudlich von Abisko 363

Galanaki, Rhea I Shall Sign as Loui tr. W136,A175

Gerein, James 316

Gerling, David Ross W179,395,397

Gibbs, James W98

Glickman, Nora W180

Gomori, George W131,347,348,350,A110, A166

Gonzalez, Ann W182

Gorjup, Branko W120,W122

Gorup, Radmila J. A160

Capek, Karel Prijata korespondence eds. Le Clezio: L’erotisme, les

mots A175

Cuoco, Lorin SEE The Dual Muse

Akash, Munir SEE Post-Gibran

Abbott, Scott The Rhetoric of War and Peace: Peter Handke and the

Former Yugoslavia W78

Lee, Mabel SEE Gao Xingjian

Boguslawski, Alexander SEE Victor Brook

Conde, Maryse Celanire cou-coupe 306

Dharwadker, Vinay SEE A.K. Adam J. John L. W106,W107,A136

Hannan, Jim 307,310,A122

Hauptman, Robert W127

Hempel, Nele W145

Henry, Richard A153

Hill, W. Riley W186

Tekin, Latife Dear Shameless Death trs. W184(3),407,A126,A227

Besser, Gretchen Rous A171

Bien, Peter W188,329,A143

Binham, Philip W130,344

Bird, Rosa Julia A219

Birnbaum, Marianna D. 391(2),393,A215

Mikasinovich, Branko W172,393

Mitova, Katia W169(2),A213

Monk, Pamela 341

Montante, Michela 384

Mortimer, Mildred A107

Motte, Warren W141,352,356,A176

Mozur, Joseph P. W105,328(2)

McMillan, Arnold W165

McNerney, Kathleen A116,A230,A231

Menton, Seymour W178

Meredith, Howard L. W171,337

Dana, Kathleen Osgood W129

d’Angelo, Giovanni A208

Daniell, Steven 354

Darnell, Helena 346,A164

Dauenhauer, Richard A239

Davies Cordova, Sarah A114

Davis, Robert Murray W128,W133,W175,W191,341,342

Dawes, Kwame S. Fenrir: Een lang weekend in de Ardennen 375

Paranjape, Makarand Towards a Poetics of the Indian English Novel

319 — Used Book A134

Said, Edward W. Nick Carbo Eileen Tabios A141

Milosz, Czeslaw To A110

Ellis, Robert Richmond SEE Reading and Writing the Ambiente

Bernstein, Michael Andre Five Portraits: Modernity and the

Imagination in Twentieth-Century German Writing 372

Treile, Irbe Princese atver acis: Romans miniaturas 349

Bilu, Dalya SEE Yehoshua Kenaz

Schulte, Rainer The Fallible Canon: The Struggle Between Omissions

and Additions A81

Braun, Volker Das Wirklichgewollte A179

Laabi, Abdellatif Poemes perissables W97

Kronauer, Brigitte Teufelsbruck A179

Levy, Andrea Fruit of the Lemon A146

Komrij, Gerrit SEE De Afrikaanse poezie

Dimitrova, Kristin Popravka na talismani A213

Nunez, Ana Rosa SEE Homenaje a Eugenio Florit

R.K. Lammers W108

Berelis, Guntis Minotaura medibas W133

Ortheil, Hanns-Josef Die Nacht des Don Juan 366

Montes de Oca, Marco Antonio Delante de la luz cantan los pajaros:

Poesia 1953-2000 ed. Sorkin

with the author W191



Borges, Jorge Luis This Craft of Verse ed. Sverre Lyngstad W156

Riley, Karen SEE Ghassan Kanafani

Kuroi, Senji Life in the Cul-de-Sac tr. Saliha Paker Mel

Kenne A234

Rajkovic, D. Page numbers preceded by W and A refer respectively to the

Winter and Summer/Autumn issues. Tran Nho Bui W112

Sirajuddin, Shaista Sonnu SEE M. Michael Biggins A217

Schwartzman, Adam SEE Ten South African Poets

Hong Ying Une fille de la faim tr. W123,W193,A238

Ryan, Marleigh Grayer W108

Salih, Sabah A. Monikas lovsang A189

Konrad, George The Invisible Voice: Meditations on Jewish Themes

tr. Bruce Berlind W92

Kenny, Maurice SEE Stories for a Winter’s Night

Buffard, Claude-Henri La fille d’Emma A169

Szirtes, George The Budapest File 342 — SEE Sandor Kanyadi

Latrobe, Kathy Children’s Literature: International

Perspectives A98

Fabian, Laszlo Hombar W130

Paz Soldan, Edmundo SEE Se habla espanol

Schmidt, Kathrin Go-In der Belladonnen: Gedichte 370

Srinath, C.N. Alexander Boguslawski W165

Naqvi, Maniza On Air 323

Havel, Vaclav SEE Allen Ginsberg

Ayerra, Ramon Gente ligera de cascos 395

Sekatskii, Aleksandr Soblazn i volia: Proza, esseistika 390

Rothmann, Ralf Gebet in Ruinen 369

Tanikawa, Shuntaro Selected Poems trs. Dnevnik 393

Goldblatt, Howard SEE Huang Chun-ming — SEE Wang Shuo

Petrovic, Goran Sitnicarnica Kod srecne ruke A216

Raja Rao: An Anthology of Recent Criticism ed. George Kao, trs.

Patia Yasin the author W102

Fuguet, Alberto SEE Se habla espanol

Doulatabadi, Mahmud Die alte Erde tr. Stull, fwd. Ora Cummings W194

Papadhopoulos, Lefteris I palii simathites W188

Andiievs’ka, Emma Kazky A218

Ivkovic, Snezana Rastojanja A214

Saburov, Evgenii Po kraiu ozera A212

Spianti, Christine Eden Zone W144

Lagorio, Gina Elogio della zucca 386

Henson, Lance Revolutionslied tr. Peter Kahn, intro. Roma

Franko W175

Murakami, Haruki Norwegian Wood tr. Debjani

Chatterjee 340

Verma, Nirmal India and Europe: Selected Essays ed. 384

Simic, Viseslav Zapisi Danilovog ucenika i druge price 393

Gangopadhyay, Sunil Murmur in the Woods: Selected Poems tr. Michael McCurdy 342

Goldstein, Imre SEE Peter Nadas

Hein, Christoph Willenbrock W145

Alvi, Moniza Carrying My Wife A152

Uppal, Priscila Confessions of a Fertility Expert W122

Rinaldi, Angelo Tout ce que je sais de Marie A172

Montague, John Smashing the Piano W121

Deville, Patrick Ces deux-la A171

Friberg, Gosta Elegi over en lordagkvall pa Soder 381

Tran Nho Bui SEE Nguyen Van Sam

Sharpar-Rad, Katayoun SEE Reza Baraheni

Toth, Eva Emlekevers W133

Gluck, Anselm inland: augen lugen, spiegel nicht W149

Corsi, Pietro Omicidio in un paese di cacciatori pref. Artemio Rodriguez, intro. Kosorici W172 — Tajna svadba boginje Selene W172

– Orfej u Paklu 391

Sankranti, Sujate The Warp and the Weft and Other Stories A134

Cooke, Miriam Ghassan al-Jaba’i: Prison Literature in Syria

After 1980 237

Benge, Okot SEE Uganda Poetry Anthology 2000

Hitchins, Keith SEE Lucian Blaga

Agard, John Weblines ill. Zheng Shusen et al.


Zivkovic, Zoran Time Gifts tr. Lewis Davies Arthur Smith W124

Iser, Wolfgang The Range of Interpretation W193

Szewc, Piotr Zmierzchy i poranki 388

Valtinos, Thanassis Data from the Decade of the Sixties trs. SEE Ioana Ieronim

Nguyen Van Sam Khoi song tren song ill. Charlotte

Leonhard Kossuth W165

Riemann, Wolfgang SEE Zulfu Livaneli

Franchini, Enzo SEE Alfredo De Palchi

Hix, H.L. Athar A Certain Season intro. Neugebauer W128

Dawes, Kwame SEE Chris Abani — SEE Talk Yuh Talk

Giffoni, Luis Adagio para o silencio 411

Perloff, Marjorie SEE Rochelle Owens

Gallagher, Tess SEE Raymond Carver

Feldman, Burton The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy,

and Prestige A238

Mukherjee, Meenakshi The Perishable Empire: Essays on Indian

Writing in English 318


Ali, Taha Muhammad Never Mind: Twenty Poems and a Story trs. Wolfgang Riemann


Vrkljan, Irena Posljednje putovanje u Bec 387

Lim, Suchen Christine A Bit of Earth 325

Thakore, Anand Waking in December A136

Davie, Donald Two Ways Out of Whitman: American Essays 338

Levi, Primo The Voice of Memory: Interviews 1961-1987 eds. Jr. Felicity McNab A113

Rodriguez, Artemio SEE Juan Felipe Herrera

Liebrecht, Savyon Nashim Mi-Tokh Katalog 411

Rekola, Mirkka Muistinavaruus: Kirjoituksia, puheenvuoroja vuosilta

1959-1999 eds. SEE Walt McDonald

O’Brien, Edna James Joyce W126 — Wild Decembers W115

Erfan, Ali La [602.sup.e] nuit trs. tr. Marlowe

Miller W175

Saramago, Jose A Caverna A112

Xcites: The Flamingo Book of New French Writing ed. Jr. Wolf

Ramat, Silvio Sharing a Trip: Selected Poems tr. Peter Nazareth A120

Noma Hiroshi “Dark Pictures” and Other Stories tr. LaVonne SEE Stories for a Winter’s Night

Balcom, John SEE Li Qiao

Deligiorgis, Stavros SEE Thanassis Valtinos

Bond, Ruskin Friends in Small Places: Ruskin Bond’s

Unforgettable People A132

van der Leeuw, Frank SEE Lutz Rathenow

Jha, Raj Kamal The Blue Bedspread W105

Gailly, Christian Nuage rouge W137

Osang, Alexander die nachrichten A183

Richards, David Adams Mercy Among the Children A162

Oates, Joyce Carol Blonde W115

The Pushcart Prize XXV: Best of the Small Presses eds. Ancient Acid Flashes Back 183

13 poetas testimoniales ed. trs.

Helena Goscilo et al. Yehoshua

Carter, David SEE Allen Ginsberg

Groot verseboek 2000 comp. Byron W188(2),409,410(2)

Ramras-Rauch, Gila W189,411,A232

Reese, Christopher L. Jane

Assimakopoulos Stavros Deligiorgis W188

Wheatle, Alex East of Acre Lane A151

Zheng Shusen SEE Xianggang xin wenxue nianbiao

Leong Liew Geok Women Without Men A141

Kravanja, Sonja SEE Dane Zajc

Jankovic, Sava Raseljeno lice A215

Kahler, Runa J. Jean

Franco A226

Ten South African Poets ed. Angela M. Renate Lauermann


Brink, Andre The Rights of Desire A106 — Donkermaan A123

Tate, Bronwyn Russian Dolls 323

Kao, George SEE Pai Hsien-yung

Shono, Junzo Evening Clouds tr. Geoffrey Strachan A177

McCurdy, Michael SEE Iris Murdoch

Crouse, Timothy SEE Roger Martin du Gard

Zagdanski, Stephane Pauvre de Gaulle! W139

Bellver, Catherine G. Barbara Harlow Karen E. W170,A218

Brescia, Pablo 399,400

Breton, Jean-Luc 334,A149

Briffa, Charles A206

Bronson, Daniel R. Roger Allen

Adnan Haydar 404

Kanyadi, Sandor There Is a Land: Selected Poems tr. Dalya Bilu A232

Schiff, Stacy Vera: Mrs. Joseph Farrell

Antonio Scuderi A208

Vital, Alberto SEE Juan Rulfo

King, Bruce Derek Walcott: A Caribbean Life 310

Arnold, Ellen L. A222

Henderson, Bill SEE The Pushcart Prize XXV

Ortolano, Glauco Top Ten Brazilian Novels of the Last Twenty Years A89 — SEE Moacyr Scliar

Oster, Pierre Paysage du tout, 1951-2000 pref. Labinger A226

Mercado, Tununa In a State of Memory tr. Daniela Belingheri W184 — lieder

in der sprache des feindes / songs in the enemy’s language tr.

Dionys Zink, ill. Luc

Brebion Timothy Crouse 359

Wilson, Norma C. Gisele Pineau: Writing the Dimensions of Migration


Void, Jan Erik I Vektens tegn: 777 dikt 380

Hernandez, Librada SEE Reading and Writing the Ambiente

Bayard, Pierre Comment ameliorer les oeuvres ratees? A174

Puertolas, Soledad Adios a las novias 395

Kolb, Ulrike Fruhstuck mit Max W146

Schwartz, Marian SEE Nina Berberova

Cavanagh, Clare SEE Adam Zagajewski

Bourdin, Maryse SEE Su Jung In


Akiwenzie-Damm, Kateri SEE Skins

Vignisson, Runar Helgi i allri sinni nekt 378

Makela, Matti Ohitusleikkaus ja muita kertomuksia A164

Codrescu, Andrei The Devil Never Sleeps and Other Essays W128

Sigurdsson, Birgir Ljosid i vatninu A196

Railey, Kevin Natural Aristocracy: History, Ideology, and the

Production of William Faulkner W128

Muldoon, Paul Poems 1968-1998 A154

Reading and Writing the Ambiente: Queer Sexualities in Latino,

Latin American, and Spanish Culture eds. Wayne P. Luigi

Fontanella A205

Ginsberg, Allen Spontaneous Mind: Selected Interviews 1958-1996 ed.

David Carter, pref. Jay Rubin 321 — Sputnik

Sweetheart tr. Charles Simic, fwd. Vasa Mihailovic W174

Stimac, Zdenka SEE Dane Zajc

Ejrnaes, Anne Marie Theas faerd 373


Levertov, Denise This Great Unknowing: Last Poems A154

Blodgett, Harriet The Feminist Artistry of “Paradise of the

Blind” A31

Marshall, Paule The Fisher King A148

Gao Xingjian Soul Mountain tr. Eila Kostamo Mirkka Rekola W134


Bei Dao Unlock trs.

tr. Edward Hirsch 394 — A

Ballad for Metka Krasovec tr. 339,A159,A160

Dorian, Marguerite A233

DuBois, Thomas A. SEE Manfred Peter Hein

Makine, Andrei La musique d’une vie 354 — Confessions of a

Fallen Standard-Bearer tr. C.N.

Wing, Betsy SEE Assia Djebar

Roubaud, Jacques Poesie : W139 — La forme d’une ville change

plus vite, helas, que le coeur des humains: Cent cinquante poemes,

1991-1998 W142

Talk Yuh Talk: Interviews with Anglophone Caribbean Poets ed. Marta Dandova Milada

Chlibcova A218

Djombo, Henri Le mort vivant W96

Gutierrez Revuelta, Pedro La nariz de Nefertiti y otros poemas 397

Coolidge, Clark On the Nameways vol. W104,A134

Nash, Susan Smith A156

Nazarenko, Tatiana A211

Nazareth, Peter 325,A128,A141,A156

Newson-Horst, Adele S. Philip Gabriel A137

Rzhevsky, Nicholas SEE Transitions

Kuzyk, Peter Wasyl Garden of Verse: Book Five W176

Enchi, Fumiko A Tale of False Fortunes tr. Ana Rosa

Nunez et al. Susana Chavez-Silverman

Librada Hernandez, intro. Moisson de cranes: Textes pour le Rwanda W93

– Rift Routes Rails: Variations romanesques 305

Gunnarsson, Petur Myndin af heiminum A193

Parti-Nagy, Lajos Hosom tere 347

Hospital, Janette Turner WLT’s Top 40 List: A Response A74

Tuschick, Jamal Keine grosse Geschichte A184

Sontag, Susan In America W117

Bobis, Merlinda White Turtle: A Collection of Short Stories 324

Post-Gibran: Anthology of New Arab American Writing eds. A Friend of the Earth 330

Sirola, Jouka Sisustus 346

Leclair, Bertrand Movi sevaze W144

Scuderi, Antonio SEE Dario Fo

Lon, Anne Marie Kaerlighedens rum 374

Nordbrandt, Henrik Egne digte 373

Javadi, Fattaneh Haj Seyed Der Morgen der Trunkenheit tr. A115

McKellar, Jennifer W183

McLeod, A. Murder and Masculinity: Violent Fictions of

Twentieth-Century Latin America 400

Transitions: Slovak Stories ed. Julie Mango 307

Alvarez, Julia In the Name of Salome W113

Rytcheu, Juri Die Reise der Anna Odinzowa trs. Jusuf Vrioni 406

Kostamo, Eila SEE Mirkka Rekola

Paddock, Lisa SEE Carl Rollyson

Chedid, Andree Le message W136

Baghestani, Susanne SEE Fattaneh Haj Seyed Javadi

Vladiv-Glover, Slobodanka SEE Mikhail Epstein

Chevillard, Eric Les absences du Capitaine Cook 352

Nguyen Huy Thiep Conte d’amour un soir de pluie tr. Bill

Henderson et al. Javier Sanjines W177

Acuna Sanchez, Rene Isaias SEE Marco Antonio Montes de Oca

Mama’s Baby (Papa’s Maybe) Other Stories: New Welsh

Short Fiction eds. The Penguin Dictionary of American English Usage

and Style W127

Jomy, Alain Heureux comme a Monterey W137

McEwen, Alastair SEE Umberto Eco

Ma Van Khang Against the Flood trs. W108

Parks, Gerald W163

Perry, John Oliver 317,319,A107

Peters, Issa W187,404,A228

Porter, Gerald A164

Powers, Elizabeth 372,A179

Pratt, William W119,W122,W126,338,A152,A154

Preto-Rodas, Richard A. Cornelia Homburg A237


Baraheni, Reza Les saisons en enfer du jeune Ayyaz tr. Barr W195

Nimrod Les jambes d’Alice 305

Schlesinger, Klaus Trug W147

Cerami, Vincenzo Fantasmi A202

Cholodenko, Marc Mon heros (Je ne sais pas) 361

Metellus, Jean La vie en partage W96

Desai, Anita Diamond Dust: Stories W104

Labinger, Andrea G. Sheila

Sengupta 318

Mazzarella, Merete “Da svanger sig sommaren kring sin

axel”: Om konsten att bli gammal A198

Raeside, James SEE Noma Hiroshi

Chatterjee, Debjani SEE The Redbeck Anthology of British South

Asian Poetry

Pireyre, Emmanuelle Mes vetements ne sont pas des draps de lit A176

Humphreys, Emyr The Gift of a Daughter A145

Hemmerechts, Kristien De kinderen van Arthur 376

Westo, Kjell Vadan av att vara Skrake 382

Riboulet, Matieu Quelqu’un s’approche 356

Nasrallah, Emily A House Not Her Own: Stories from Beirut tr.

Thuraya Khalil-Khouri 403

Laurrent, Eric Dehors W138

Grimsdottir, Vigdis Pognin 377

Goscilo, Helena SEE Svetlana Vasilenko

Link, Perry The Uses of Literature: Life in the Socialist Chinese

Literary System W102

Miller, Elizabeth Gamble SEE Claudio Rodriguez — SEE Nela Rio

Gronfeldt, Vibeke Det rigtige W154

Khorrami, Mohammad Mehdi SEE A Feast in the Mirror

Kahf, Mohja The Silences of Contemporary Syrian Literature 225

Benni, Stefano Spiriti W161

Kureishi, Hanif Midnight All Day 332

Alisanka, Eugenijus City of Ash trs. Anita Niknam Jean-Luc

Moreau A136

Maulpoix, Jean-Michel L’instinct de ciel 362

Teller, Janne Odins o W154

Yousaf, Nahem Alex La Guma: Politics and Resistance A126

Singer, Isaac Bashevis More Stories from My Father’s Court tr.

Curt Leviant A200

Imbot-Bichet, Genevieve SEE Can Xue

Smith, Arthur SEE Mama’s Baby (Papa’s Maybe)

Quignard, Pascal Terrasse a Rome 355

Hein, Manfred Peter Hier ist gegangen wer: Gedichte 1993-2000

afterword Andreas F. Michael

Berry W101

Kahn, Peter SEE Tununa Mercado

Davis, Robert Murray Out of the Shadows: Slovene Writing After

Independence W59 — When Was Postmodernism? 295

von der Goltz, Hans Die Erben 364

Nori, Paolo Spinoza 385

Bandyopadhyay, Bidisha SEE Bidisha

Vidal, Gore The Golden Age 335



Brebion, Luc SEE Roger Martin du Gard

Mahapatra, Jayanta Bare Face A107

Oliphant, Dave SEE Enrique Lihn

Wertheim, Albert The Dramatic Art of Athol Fugard: From South

Africa to the World 312

Rathenow, Lutz Sterben will gelernt sein: Lyrische Prosa –

Prosaische Lyrik ill. Thomas Simpson A208

Hacker, Marilyn SEE Claire Malroux

Hamri, Porsteinn fra Vetrarmyndin A194

Novakovic, Mirjana Strah i njegov sluga A215

Laferriere, Dany Le cri des oiseaux fous 307

Martelli, Sebastiano SEE Pietro Corsi

de Chamberet, Georgia SEE Xcites

Daruwalla, Keki N. James O.

Belcher, tr. Mabel Lee W101

Skins: Contemporary Indigenous Writing eds. Peter Reich W131

Ramachandra, Ragini SEE Raja Rao

Bhalla, Alok SEE Nirmal Verma

Isegawa, Moses Abyssinian Chronicles A127

Marouane, Leila The Abductor tr. LaVonne Ruoff 408

Farrell, Joseph SEE Dario Fo The Fat Man from La Paz: Contemporary

Fiction from Bolivia ed. 392

Grawe, Christian W150(2)

Green, Maria A177

Greenberg, Judith L. 396

Rogers, David A159

Rossel, Sven H. A114

Evenson, Brian W137,W142,A116,A173

Exner, Richard A187

Fahnestock, Lee A171

Falk, Thomas H. Kwame Dawes 309

Castronuovo, David SEE Angela Bianchini

Bonnefoy, Yves Lieux et destins de l’image: Un cours de

poetique au College de France (1981-1993) W142

Tahir, M. The Collected Essays ed. Sonia Raiziss

Giampaolo Feriani Enzo Franchini A205 — Paradigma intro. A147

Su Jung In Talgung trs. James

Raeside W108

Phan Thanh Hao SEE Ma Van Khang

Zollman, Peter SEE Sandor Kanyadi

Mihailescu, Calin-Andrei SEE Jorge Luis Borges

Simonsuuri, Kirsti About Forty Canons A77

Laine, Pascal A croquer A169

Louis, Adrian C. Rosario Santos, intro. A112

Quinlan, Kieran W124

Raizis, M. W139,352,354,A169,A172

Ciplijauskaite, Birute 399,A224

Coad, David 313,314,A122,A131

Cocozzella, Peter A201,A204

Cohen, Leslie A232

Cookson, Sandra A150,A161

Cornis-Pope, Marcel A233

Crane, Rufus S. Phan Thanh Hao Wayne

Karlin 327

Jeannet, Angela M. SEE Mempo Giardinelli

Di Pasquale, Emanuel SEE Silvio Ramat

Simpson, Thomas SEE Marco Paolini

Kanafani, Ghassan Palestine’s Children: Returning to Haifa and

Other Stories trs. Shaista Sonnu Sirajuddin



Dario Fo: Stage, Text, and Tradition eds. Das tr. 403,404,405,A229

Bradbook, B.R. Munir

Akash Khaled Mattawa W187

McAdams, Janet The Island of Lost Luggage W184

Supervielle, Silvia Baron Essais pour un espace A178

Ferrero, Ernesto N. Frank

Birbalsingh 304

Michaels, Anne Skin Divers W120

Hemon, Aleksandar The Question of Bruno 332

Berlind, Bruce SEE Gyorgy Petri

Joenpelto, Eeva Uskomattomia uhrauksia 343

Adcock, Fleur Poems 1960-2000 W109

Amann, Jurg Am Ufer des Flusses A179

Hopkinson, Nalo SEE Whispers from the Cotton Tree Root

Ernaux, Annie L’evenement W136

Hitchcott, Nicki Women Writers in Francophone Africa 303

Handal, Nathalie SEE The Poetry of Arab Women

Massenet, Violaine Francois Mauriac A108

Franzobel Santa Scala oder Josefine Wurznbachers Hohepunkt 363

Eco, Umberto Experiences in Translation tr. Edmund White A160

Wuhr, Paul Venus im Pudel W151

Manent, Montserrat Cami de petra A231

Wellershoff, Dieter Der Liebeswunsch 368

Waberi, Abdourahman A. Vaclav Havel, intro. William I. 376,A191

Bauschinger, Sigrid W148,368

Beck, Ervin 304,A118

Becker, Lucille F. Vinay Dharwadker W105

Rowe, William Poets of Contemporary Latin America: History and the

Inner Life 401

McPherson, Nina SEE Duong Thu Huong

Schami, Rafik Die Sehnsucht der Schwalbe 367

Lodge, David Thinks … A134

Talbot, Emile J. Janet M. by the author A209

Daive, Jean L’autoportrait aux dormeuses 361 — Le retour

passeur 361

Spiegel, Hubert SEE Welch ein Leben

Feriani, Giampaolo SEE Alfredo De Palchi

Lance, Alain Temps crible: Poemes, 1962-1999 W141

Nijssen, Hub SEE Peter Huchel

Angot, Christine L’inceste W135


Ollier, Claude Wanderlust et les Oxycedres W138

Arnalds, Ragnar Landkrabbinn A192

Maron, Monika quer uber die gleise: artikel, essays, zwischenrufe


Critical Essays on Ngugi wa Thiong’o ed. Anselm Hollo 344

Copple-Tosic, Alice SEE Zoran Zivkovic

Duranti, Francesca Left-Handed Dreams ed. Nina McPherson

Phan Huy Duong 327

Plantus-Runey, Doris SEE Lucian Blaga

Ramos, Jorge Franco Rosario Tijeras A219

Literary Necrology 2000 W89

Brezan, Jurij SEE Gregory H. Stephen Gray A117

Skiftesvik, Joni Gagarin kinoksessa A164

Dorrie, Doris Was machen wir jetzt? W145

Homburg, Cornelia SEE The Dual Muse

Berry, Michael SEE Chang Ta-chun

Company, Flavia Melalcor A230

Spencer, Nigel SEE Marie-Claire Blais

van der Ploeg, Durk It wurk fan ‘e duvel 376

Cole, Peter SEE Taha Muhammad Ali — SEE Yoel Hoffmann

Runge, Doris trittfeste schatten A185

Belpoliti, Marco SEE Primo Levi

Barrento, Joao Umbrais o pequeno livro dos prefacios A235

Brookner, Anita The Bay of Angels A143

Herrera, Juan Felipe Loteria Cards and Fortune Poems: A Book of

Lives ill. 381

Osundare, Niyi W94

Oxford, Jeffrey A220

Paddon, Seija 344,A163(2)

Paniker, Ayyappa A133

Parker, Judy W109

Parker, Patricia L. Marilyn Hacker 359

The Redbeck Anthology of British South Asian Poetry ed. Shakespeare: The Complete Works 342

Jollin-Bertocchi, Sophie J.M.G. 363

Ferreira, Cesar A221

Flanagan, Kathleen A141

Forcadas, Albert M. Stephen Sartarelli W160

Salisbury, Ralph Rainbows of Stone 407

Livaneli, Zulfu Der Eunuch von Konstantinopel tr. Talking About O’Dwyer W10 — The Writer at Work:

Essays A140

Bohm, Tomas The Vienna Jazz Trio 380

Li Qing Kosovo 1999 trs. John, Madeleine A Pure Clear Light W117

Davis-Undiano, Robert Con A New Era for WLT A5

Epstein, Mikhail, Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover, Alexander Genis

Russian Postmodernism: New Perspectives on Post-Soviet Culture ed. A212

Zannier, Luciano Pale de la Gialine W163 — Pale dal Noglar: doma

doma ed altri ascolti A206

Mortimer, Mildred SEE Leila Sebbar

Sartarelli, Stephen SEE Gianni Riotta

Audouard, Antoine Adieu, mon unique 352

Haslinger, Josef Das Vaterspiel 364

Granoff, Phyllis SEE K.C. 223

Brezan, Jurij A3, A43, A50

Chinese Blanc de Chine sculpture Lao Tze W19

Chinese dragon statuette W3

Chinese ivory carving Gentleman of High Rank W11

Chinese jade carving Foo Dog W28

Chinese stone carvings and seals W20, W21

Chinese tomb figure [Horse] W1

Chinese wood carving Our Lady of Talpa W2, W10

Cohen, Marcel A54, A55, A56, back cover of Summer/Autumn


Darwish, Mahmud 282

Drakulic, Slavenka W3, W72

Duong Thu Huong A2, A31

Elytis, Odysseus A94

Frajlich, Anna A25, back cover of Summer/Autumn issue

Gao Xingjian W13, W22 — scene from play Between Life and

Death W24 — scene from play The Other Shore W25 — Watercolor


Gauguin, Paul Copenhagen front cover of Winter issue

Gilman, Karyn Lynn SEE Daniel T. SEE Marie-Claire Blais

Efoui, Kossi La fabrique des ceremonies A127

Khalil-Khouri, Thuraya SEE Emily Nasrallah

Kapantai, Izmini I Floria ton neron W187

Wack, Amy SEE Oxygen

Ziolkowski, Theodore WLT’s “Top 40″ A78

Cortes, Carles Veu de dona A230

Jersild, P.C. Maurice Kenny, intro. Getman 408

Somlo, Ana Iduce godine u Jerusalimu W174

Widmer, Urs Der Geliebte der Mutter W148

Index of Reviewers

Abbott, Scott W78

Abdel-Jaouad, Hedi W97,406

Abramson, Julia W139,306

Accad, Evelyne A229

Adams, Jeffrey W147

Agarwal, Ramlal W105,A135

Aikant, Satish C. A169

Griffin, Larry D. Dave Oliphant W177

Kiernan, Frances Seeing Mary Plain: A Life of Mary McCarthy W125

Riotta, Gianni Prince of the Clouds tr. A214

Mann, John A157

Martin, Margareta W129,343,344

Mataric, Mira W172,W173,W174,A215

Matteo, Sante A202

Matthew, Elizabeth 409

Mattsson, Margareta 380

McCormick, Robert H. Steven Jaron A54

Medina, Enrique La espera infinita A219

Mitterand, Henri SEE Pierre Oster

Broda, Martine Poemes d’ete 360

Zervanou, Dionysia SEE George Vafopoulos

Heller, Joseph Portrait of the Artist, As an Old Man W114

The Wake Forest Book of Irish Women’s Poetry, 1967-2000 ed.

Peggy O’Brien W124

Harlow, Barbara SEE Ghassan Kanafani

. Katayoun

Shahpar-Rad W106

Jahaji: An Anthology of Indo-Caribbean Fiction ed. Pekka Tarkka A165

Krog, Antjie Kleur kom nooit alleen nie A124 — Down to My Last

Skin A124

Chappuis, Pierre Distance aveugle, precede de L’invisible

parole A178

McGowan, Nicoletta Di Ciolla SEE Francesca Duranti

Oz, Amos The Same Sea tr. W106,318,A132

Al-Bazei, Saad A. W193

Samuel, Yoshiko Yokochi A138

Sarvan, Charles P. Helen Dendrinou Kolias 409

Phan Huy Duong SEE Duong Thu Huong


Gnisci, Armando Una storia diversa A206

Liabo, Marita Brytning A198

Blais, Marie-Claire The Exile The Sacred Travellers tr. A. 335,A146,A148

Nguyen, Dinh-Hoa W111,W112

Noor, Ronny 323,A127

Novikov, Tatyana W168

Obradovic, Biljana D. Elizabeth Gamble Miller 294

Morina, Mimmo Alma Mater W163

Forssell, Lars Fortroenden W157

Grol, Regina Eroticism and Exile: Anna Frajlich’s Poetry A22

Man-Cheong, Iona SEE Bei Dao

Hochhuth, Rolf Die Geburt der Tragodie aus dem Krieg: Frankfurter

Poetik-Vorlesungen A186

Buffoni, Franco Il profilo del Rosa W164

Gospodinov, Georgi Estestven roman W169

Birbalsingh, Frank SEE Jahaji

Simic, Charles SEE Tomaz Salamun


Nye, Robert Mrs. Stewart Brown W94

Rubin, Jay SEE Haruki Murakami

Jose, Nicholas The Red Thread 313

Babaylan: An Anthology of Filipina and Filipina American Writers

eds. Eliot Weinberger Iona Man-Cheong A106

Evangelides, Constantine SEE Claire Angelides

Stull, William L. Krinka Vidakovic Petrov Aleksandar

Petrov 315

Fo, Dario SEE Dario Fo

Lange, Hartmut Die Bildungsreise A182

Assimakopoulos, Jane SEE Thanassis Valtinos

Phillips, Carl The Tether A157

Ramanujan, A.K. W164,361(2)

Genova, Pamela A. All rights reserved.


Kamanda, Kama Les contes du crepuscule A116

Onwueme, Osonye Tess Shakara Dance-Hall Queen: A Play About Mothers

Daughters 310

Sanjines, Javier SEE The Fat Man from La Paz

Homenaje a Eugenio Florit: De lo eterno, lo mejor ed. SEE Eugenijus Alisanka

Pinson, Jean-Claude Fado (avec flocons et fantomes) 362

Barnes, Julian Love, etc. W190,W191

Banerian, James 327(2)

Barnett, Ursula A. 367

Hallmundsson, Hallberg A193,A194,A196

Hanaway, William L. Hanming Chen A130

Lala-Crist, Dhespina Enas mikros theos perisepse 409

Kadare, Ismail Lulet e ftohta te marsit 406 — Froides fleurs

d’avril tr. Alan P. Nicholas Rzhevsky, intro. W145,366,369

Wolf, Kirsten 377(2),A193,A196(2)

Wong, Timothy C. Phyllis Granoff W103

Lamming, George Coming, Coming Home: Conversations II A115

Nicole, Robert The Word, the Pen, and the Pistol: Literature and

Power in Tahiti 326

Huang Chun-ming The Taste of Apples tr. William L. Amy Wack

Grahame Davies W191

Welch, James The Heartsong of Charging Elk W185

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Krohn, Leena Mita puut tekevat elokuussa: Seitseman kertomusta

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O’Brien, Peggy SEE The Wake Forest Book of Irish Women’s


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Li Qiao Wintry Night trs. Sonja Kravanja

Zdenka Stimac A217

Pisarev, Djordje Zavera bliznakinja A216

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Depusse, Marie Qu’est-ce qu’on garde? 357

Ruoff, A. Philip Gabriel A138

Sorkin, Adam J. A119

Stendahl, Brita W158

Sterling, Eric W194,A110

Stynen, Ludo W155,376,A123

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Tupja, Edmond SEE Fatos Kongoli

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Marentes, Luis A. Gerrit

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Rodriguez, Claudio Three Poems tr. Anna Frajlich 389

Mokeddem, Malika N’zid A114

Ieronim, Ioana The Triumph of the Water Witch tr. Marco

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Earnshaw, Doris A157,A158

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Ehrlich, Nina 367

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Ellis, Cath 313

Elsie, Robert W185,W186(2),406(2)

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Rollyson, Carl, Lisa Paddock Susan Sontag: The Making of an

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Wondratschek, Wolf Die grosse Beleidigung: Vier Erzahlungen A184

Helsinki: A Literary Companion eds. Robert Richmond Ellis W181

Hamsun, Knut On Overgrown Paths tr. Marjorie

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Porcel, Baltasar Springs and Autumns tr. W160,383,384,A202

Cranston, Mechthild W141,A173,A178

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Pai Hsien-yung Taipei People / Taipei jen ed. Frank van der Leeuw W149

Jaron, Steven SEE Marcel Cohen

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Glissant, Edouard Sartorius: Le roman des Batoutos W97 — SEE

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al-Daif, Rashid This Side of Innocence tr. 315

Knudsen, James 330,A200

Koutsoudaki, Mary W187

Kratz, Henry W153,A195

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Can Xue La Rue de la Boue jaune tr. Taotao Liu John Balcom A130

Kande, Sylvie Lagon, lagunes: Tableau de memoire postf. Howard Goldblatt A142

Raine, Kathleen The Collected Poems of Kathleen Raine A157

De Carlo, Andrea Macno W162

Gabriel, Philip SEE Senji Kuroi — Gabriel, Philip SEE Haruki


Biumi, Enea Bosinata 384

Genis, Alexander Red Bread 389 — SEE Mikhail Epstein

Ensing, Riemke Talking Pictures: Selected Poems 322

Eagleton, Terry The Idea of Culture W193

Perloff, Marjorie Reflections on the Top Forty A79

Rousseau, Francois-Olivier Le passeur A172

Krul, Claude SEE Chawqi Baghdadi

Reich-Ranicki, Marcel Mein Leben 370 — SEE Welch ein Leben

Williams, N.D. Andre P. Elizabeth Gamble Miller 299

Motte, Warren Ten Fables of the Novel in French of the 1990s A84

Abani, Chris Kalakuta Republic intro. W103,A130,A142

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Se habla espanol: Voces latinas en USA comps. Dramen 369

Lehtonen, Soila SEE Helsinki

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Booth, Marilyn Beneath Lies the Rock: Contemporary Egyptian Poetry

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Haydar, Paula SEE Rashid al-Daif

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Ellen L. L. W99,A106

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Chang Ts’o SEE Dominic Cheung

Fontanella, Luigi SEE Alfredo De Palchi

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Wang Shuo Please Don’t Call Me Human tr. Nathalie

Handal 405


McDonald, Walt Whatever the Wind Delivers: Celebrating West Texas

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Bishop, Michael SEE Salah Stetie

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Hotschnig, Alois Ludwigs Zimmer 365

Mark, Grigorii Ogliadyvaias’ vpered A212

Raiziss, Sonia SEE Alfredo De Palchi

Dabydeen, Cyril My Brahmin Days and Other Stories 306

St. Kim

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Novarina, Valere L’origine rouge W140

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Levy, Michele “Brotherly Wounds”: Representations of

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Gordon, Robert SEE Primo Levi

Kossuth, Charlotte SEE Juri Rytcheu

Dones, Elvira Yjet nuk vishen keshtu W185


Beard, Michael SEE Rashid al-Daif

Dichter, Wilhelm Szkota bezboznikow W171

Brown, Stewart SEE All Are Involved

Derrick, Neil, Edward Field The Villagers: A Novel of

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Clarke, Gillian Five Fields W118

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All Are Involved: The Art of Martin Carter ed. Thomas W107

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Petrov, Krinka Vidakovic SEE Li Qing

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Kitamura, Satoshi SEE John Agard

Emecheta, Buchi The New Tribe 310

Singer, Lea Die Zunge A183

Xianggang xin wenxue nianbiao (1950-1969) eds. Robert Gordon A207

White, Steven F. SEE R.K. A209

Johnson, Emily A211

Kabdebo, Thomas W130,W131,346

Kahf, Mohja W192

Kaiser, Mary W122,342,A154

Kamoche, Jidlaph Gitau A121

Karriker, Alexandra Heidi A212

King, Adele W93(2),W94,W143,303,305(2),308,A115,A120,A121,


King, Bruce W95,W109,W111,W112,W114,W116,W118,310,324,


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Welch ein Leben: Marcel Reich-Ranickis Erinnerungen – Stimmen,

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Scliar, Moacyr Discovering Isaac Babel tr. George Szirtes 346

Steinsdottir, Idunn Haustgrima A197

Carbo, Nick SEE Babaylan

Nairn, Thom SEE George Vafopoulos

Rauschenbach, Bernd SEE Peter Ruhmkorf

Suri, Manil The Death of Vishnu A135

Kenaz, Yehoshua Returning Lost Loves tr. Absence and Presence: Spanish Women Poets of

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Bevilacqua, Alberto La polvere sull’erba 383

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World Literature Today’s Top 40 List, 1927-2001: Celebrating

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Obradovic, Nadezda W172,W174,A216(2)

Oettli, Simone 322

Ojaide, Tanure 309,A120

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Getman, John L. Alice Copple-Tosic 392

Kunitz, Stanley The Collected Poems 337

McNab, Felicity SEE Leila Marouane

Berlind, Bruce SEE Gyula Illyes

Bojic, Veljko P. W125,W167,359,A108,A238

Capek-Habekovic, Romana 386,A209

Capozzi, Rocco W161,385,A207

Carls, Alice-Catherine W171,387,388

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Lince, Segismundo SEE 13 poetas testimoniales

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Burke, John Muk Muk Bridge of Triangles A131

Kruger, Michael Die Cellospielerin W146

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Duong Thu Huong Memories of a Pure Spring trs. Heinrich Boll: Eine

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Axelrod, Mark Capital Castles W113

Carrano, Patrizia Illuminata W161

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Wolf, Gregory H. James Hoggard 402

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Rimanelli, Giose W113,W163,A205(2),A206

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What happens when you drop a nuclear warhead on concrete? — FCW

The test was conducted at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility near Albuquerque, N.M., using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon.

Gathering data for the latest nuclear warhead design is as nuanced as gathering intricate computer modeling data from flight tests and as brutally honest as dropping a nuclear warhead’s shell onto a concrete slab to see if it breaks.

In its first “drop test” of the W88 warhead since 1987, Sandia researchers hoisted an unarmed version of the weapon’s re-entry body on a crane and dropped it almost 200 feet to smash onto a concrete slab below.

. It was also the first flight test unit Sandia and its partners, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kansas City Plant, and Pantex, delivered to the Navy for full-scale testing under the program.

About the Author

The second test was more straightforward — and possibly a little alarming, if you’re not familiar with nuclear weapons design tests.

And, according to a statement from the labs, the W88 Alt 370 is cleared to move forward.

What happens when you drop a nuclear warhead on concrete?

By Mark RockwellNov 04, 2014

Image copyright to Sandia National Labs.

Sandia National Labs’ 185-foot Drop Tower Facility near Albuquerque, N.M., was used to gather data on the durability of the W88 ALT 370 warhead.

Sandia said it will use vibration and shock measurement data from the test to update specifications for components in the weapon. CRAFT demonstrated how the radar performed during re-entry through plasma generated by the hypersonic speeds at which the warhead travels. It also will use the information to validate computer models designed to apply the results to other drop scenarios, since it’s not possible to replicate every possible accident in tests, according to the lab.

Mark Rockwell is a staff writer covering acquisition, procurement and homeland security.

Data analytics

Researchers at Sandia National Labs, who are responsible for validating designs, improving computer modeling and updating component specifications for the W88 Alt 370 (alteration), have finished gathering data from two tests for an upgraded version of the US W88 nuclear warhead used in the Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missile.

The Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT) was the first flight test of a prototype radar for the W88 ALT 370. Contact him at or follow him on Twitter at @MRockwell4.

The test is designed to replicate a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface, according to the lab and helps develop evidence that the shell would remain safe during an accident. The June CRAFT test, according to Tim Edwards, manager for the program’s technical basis and qualification activities, was the first of several planned tests intended to demonstrate the upgraded system’s performance

The Impending Dangers of Nuclear War: America’s W88 Thermonuclear Warhead is 30 Times a Hiroshima Bomb | Global Research

As we discuss the statistics and strategies of ‘nuclear arsenals’ and ‘nuclear deterrence’ it can be hard to keep in mind the reality underlying the abstract discussions. Is it possible to imagine the degree of paranoia represented by such a standing threat? The UK government has started to spend one hundred billion pounds on rebuilding its Trident fleet of nuclear submarines, each one with the capacity to incinerate over 40 million people. In a limited nuclear war between India and Pakistan 20 million people would die from the nuclear blasts, fires, and radioactive fallout.

The US, the UK, Russia, China and France are rebuilding or upgrading their arsenals of nuclear weapons. The other four nuclear states(Pakistan, India, Israel, and North Korea) too are ‘improving’ their arsenals. The nuclear states were invited but declined to attend. The movement for an international ban is unstoppable.

The W88 is over 30 times more destructive than the bomb which wiped out Hiroshima. This is enough to wipe out the entire population of the planet many times over together with all other life forms. The other weapons of mass destruction have already been banned. As the great moral leader Desmond Tutu wrote “Nuclear weapons are an obscenity. It is the turn of the last and most destructive of them all.


Is this sane? Has the human race lost its senses? A single United States thermonuclear warhead, designated W88, has an estimated ‘yield’ of 475 kilotons2.  The ‘yield’ is the destructive power expressed in tons of TNT equivalent.

The US government has 5 nuclear submarines on patrol at all times carrying 1000 times the destructive power of the Hiroshima bomb3. As awareness of the humanitarian impact grows hearts and minds are being changed worldwide. Our belief is that this process should comprise a specific timeframe, the definition of the most appropriate fora, and a clear and substantive framework, making the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons the essence of disarmament efforts. No emergency services could begin to cope There would be no relief. It is not easy to face up to the implications of these arsenals especially if you bear the primary responsibility.



The risks of ‘accidental, mistaken, unauthorised or intentional use is growing significantly due to more countries holding weapons on higher levels of combat readiness’. Getting rid of them will take courageous leadership by states but such leadership will have the support of civil society. The suffering would be indescribable and for many would go on for months and years before death. Each bomb on a major city would kill millions of people; women, children, babies, old people, everyone. It included delegations representing 146 States, the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement and civil society organizations.


1. And rather than focus on the numbers and ‘yields’ of the weapons it was wisely decided to concentrate on the effects on humanity of the use of nuclear weapons. The next logical development, as the nuclear states continue to deny their obligations to shed their arsenals, is for the non-nuclear states to proceed independently to enact a treaty outlawing these weapons internationally. It is time to take action 7.’

The first International Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was held in 2013. The security of the non-nuclear states is threatened by the irresponsible and self-focused behaviour of the 9 others. How can we ever be sure that some deranged psychopath will not gain power in one of the nuclear states and deceive him/herself into believing that it is in their best interests to make a first strike? How can we ever be sure that some terrorist organisations will not hack into the electronic control systems and carry out the launching themselves? And we now know that even a small nuclear exchange could be a lethal threat to everyone on the planet. Due to ‘…proliferation, the vulnerability of nuclear command and control networks to cyber-attacks and to human error and potential access to nuclear weapons by non-state actors, in particularly terrorist groups’ the risks are ‘growing globally’. The non-nuclear majority which do not feel the need for a lethal ‘security’ crutch have decided to take the initiative. This is being done at a time when many citizens are suffering from inadequate defences against flooding and when the social services are being radically cut back. 

A single W88 could completely destroy London, Moscow or New York. What sort of people would do such a thing? What kind of human would threaten such an atrocity?  

She went on to explain that the use against cities of less than one percent of existing weapons would put billions of lives in jeopardy and have a long lasting detrimental  effect on both the planet’s climate and agriculture. Ray Acheson, in her closing statement on behalf of ICAN to the Second Conference included the words ‘The claim by some states that they continue to need these weapons to deter their adversaries has been exposed by the evidence presented at this conference and in Oslo as a reckless and unsanctionable gamble with our future’.


File:W-88 warhead detail.png


The Second Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was held in Nayarit, Mexico, on 13 and 14 February 2014. India and Pakistan sent observers.

Their brief and nightmarish ascendancy is over. These weapons must be outlawed; ‘in the past, weapons have been eliminated after they have been outlawed. The world has moved on.

The International Campaign Against Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)8 is a coalition of over 350 organisations in 90 countries. The huge burgeoning of awareness in the citizens of the world is bearing fruit.

Mexico offered to host a follow-up meeting to this conference and such is the vital importance of this approach that other states declared their intention to organise additional events on this subject.

The situation is being rendered even more dangerous by the US and Russia who keep 1,800 weapons on high alert atop long-range ballistic missiles that are ready to launch 5 to 15 minutes after receiving an order!

The nine nuclear states have over 10,000 nuclear weapons in their stockpiles1. She concluded ‘It is time to change the status quo.

After hearing presentations from a wide range of experts on the various effects of nuclear weapon detonations the conference concluded that “it is unlikely that any state or international body could address the immediate humanitarian emergency caused by a nuclear weapon detonation in an adequate manner and provide sufficient assistance to those affected.” Conference members also agreed that the effects of a nuclear weapon detonation will not be constrained by national borders but will produce significant negative regional and global effects6.

The powerful summary statement of the conference Chair pointed out that the broad participation of states and civil society reflected the burgeoning awareness that this issue is of the utmost importance to all the peoples of the world. They have had 69 years to get rid of their nuclear weapons while all that the citizens of the world hear from them are windy speeches around purported good intentions which never come to fruition. The nuclear states have become a sorry sight. She insisted that we must act to get rid of them or they will be used by accident, misunderstanding or malicious intent. By focusing attention on the humanitarian consequences of their use they are well on their way to doing so.

The only remedy is an enforced world ban on the existence of nuclear weapons.

And finally there is hope. Frozen in a realm of outdated thinking which was always inhuman; their leaders frightened and paranoid and prepared to put the survival of humanity in jeopardy simply in order to feel important and powerful as they strut, uncomprehending, on the world stage.

Citizens of the world have simultaneously become aware that the nuclear states do not intend to get rid of their nuclear weapons and that their existence imposes a permanent and intolerable threat to us all. And the fallout would have global consequences that would kill millions of people, disrupt climate patterns, and threaten global agricultural collapse4.

It is ironic that the worst offenders are the five permanent members of the ‘Security’ Council of the United Nations. Humanity owes a great debt to Norway for this initiative.

This ground-breaking and historic conference was attended by delegates from 127 countries and 70 nongovernmental organizations. He called for a ‘legally binding instrument’ and declared that the, ‘time has come to initiate a diplomatic process conducive to this goal. We believe this is the path to achieve a world without nuclear weapons’. The existence of nuclear weapons means they could be used by accident, by misunderstanding or by malicious intent. They are the very antithesis of humanity5…’


There are 9 nuclear states and there are 183 non-nuclear states.

The Third Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons will be held in Austria later this year.

 Furthermore decent people round the globe know that the existence of nuclear weapons is a brooding evil which undermines the moral integrity of humankind. It is time we ban nuclear weapons.


 So with these and other major forces at work there is an unstoppable movement towards banning these Armageddon machines. But these 9 are outnumbered by 20 to one

Stanford Program Helps Vietnamese RN Realize His Eldercare Calling | Andrew Lam


Chi Mai.

According to V.J. But Vietnamese often are family oriented, and they are family-based when comes to making decision.”

“Backpack Nursing”

An immigrant from Vietnam, who came to the United States at the age of nine, Mai grew up in a tough neighborhood where he saw many gang activities and people suffering without health care.

Vietnamese Make Family-Based Decisions

Periyakoil agreed: “Doctors just talk to patients and don’t usually consult with their families. “I go to San Francisco, San Jose and San Leandro and bring homeless people socks and pain-relievers,” he said. “It’s my calling,” he emphasized. “However, within the Vietnamese population, I’d say it was about 20 families, which seems like a very small number but think about how withdrawn our people are.”

In particular, through a special program at Stanford University, Mai focused on helping Vietnamese seniors and family members to create advance directives for health care — documents enabling people to state how they wish to be treated at the end of life, if they become too ill to speak for themselves, and who should make their medical decisions.

In 2012, Mai attended a Palliative Care Education and Training program for improving end-of-life care, held at Stanford University School of Medicine. “I found nursing to be more of my temperament,” he said. “I’m a devout Catholic and my ultimate goal being a nurse is to save as many lives as possible and to make as much improvement and changes for as many people as possible, especially immigrant Americans.”

Stanford University, Periyakoil said, is offering this free mini-fellowship in palliative care for all members of the community.

Mai first had a difficult time making inroads, however.

“When Chi Mai applied, I was happy to see that finally a member of the Vietnamese American community was interested in helping seniors with aging well,” she said.

Are there homeless Vietnamese? “Yes, quite a few,” he answered. That they can request for more morphine, for instance. His participation turned out to have a big effect on the Vietnamese community in San Jose.

An active member of his church, Mai devotes even his extra-curricular activities to health-related projects. It took a while for people to catch on.

Mai originally wanted to be pharmacist and was accepted to Boston University, but he changed his mind. Mai, who works at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center and is a certified translator at the county hospital, originally intended his advance-directive project to help 10 people, but it ended up going beyond that number. They didn’t know that they can assign — verbally — that ‘this person will make decision for me,’ in case they are not conscious.”

Although Mai is making inroads, she noted, the needs are there and the education regarding end-of-life care and decisions are tremendous.

The ‘Silver-Brown Tsunami’

At only age 28, Chi Mai, is a dedicated registered nurse, but it’s not just his profession. “They don’t know that there are such things that can be asked [when you are hospitalized]. Mai’s project focused on helping Vietnamese American seniors to complete advance directives. “It’s sad. He invited two other nurses to his workshops to share their experiences working with seniors and the importance of the health care directive. Those are documents that aid older adults in planning ahead for their towards-the-end-of-life care and guarantees that their standards of care will be met by hospitals and medical facilities.”

According to Peryiakoil, “The boom in U.S. I wish more Vietnamese Americans will complete the Stanford Successful Aging min-fellowship as they will then be able to help their community.” . seniors is often described as the ‘silver tsunami.’ In fact, it is a ‘silver-brown tsunami’ as the population of ethnic older adults is exploding. She observed, though, “While we have many participants from the Chinese and Asian Indian communities, not many Vietnamese have applied for the successful aging training.”

For his part, Mai is currently pursuing a doctorate in nursing: “I am doing research to look at hospital policies and how to implement change to help patients, especially within the Asian community.”

“I’ve helped countless numbers of people and patients on filling out their advanced directives so I don’t have a specific number,” he said. Periyakoil, MD, director of the program, Mai’s project for training course “addresses the issue of how Vietnamese adults are unaware of the existence of advance health care directives.

Andrew Lam, author of “Perfume Dreams: Reflections on the Vietnamese Diaspora” and “Birds of Paradise Lost,” wrote this article supported by a New America Media fellowship in collaboration with the Stanford In-reach for Successful Aging through Education Program.

Many Vietnamese patients are withdrawn, he said. Once he started the project, many, many seniors expressed interest and completed advance directives with our help. Although he talked to many from all walks of life — “from church leaders to gangsters to lawyers, nobody had an idea what I was talking about.” So Mai made a poster in both English and Vietnamese and talked about the importance of filling out advance directives at his church, as well at various Vietnamese centers. It is important for all ethnic communities to work to promote successful aging for their seniors.”

“Mr. Mai practices what he called “backpack nursing.” On his free time, he carries a big backpack full of unexpected goodies. Some choose a homeless lifestyle, others lost their livelihood because of their gambling or alcohol addiction.” But the saddest part, Mai said, is to see “a whole family falling into homelessness.”

No one has ever heard of the term “Ke hoach suc khoe cho tuong lai,” which is a translation of advance health care directive, Mai recalled

casino online fun88 cheats players

Please be careful with them casino online  fun88, if you willing to throw away your money then go ahead as I did.

Maybe Im too addicted to the casino so even i knew they sometimes cheated me but i still playing with them. The game results came out were totally different in same game same table same casino. Compare with above picture and see

Here are pictures I got the day so you could check. Pictures taken both my mobile device and my P.C. OMG..fun88..Actually I was not much surprised about because I saw this happened before. Picture I took from the mobile device at the baccarat game lobby. What made me so much dissapointed is the way they responsed me when I sent to them all the pictures that i got.

Casino online fun88

1. They avoided to talk about what showing on pictures and just focus on how my bets..blah…blah…. But today even when i proved how they cheated me but they still ignored me….how am I disappointed !!!!!!

I knew they would try to find excuses and will never accept that they cheats us-players.

All links

2014-11-29 00.35.59

I was a player of this online casino fun88 but from now on I will stop playing. My screen  capture on mobile device


3. See how the player going…4players in a line

The casino online with fun88 I used to play is Royal Palace

2014-11-29 12.11.28

2. see how the Player doing…only 2 players on a line . There were many times I found that they cheating but I had no evidence or the evidences not clear to prove.

The day I was lucky to capture my mobile screen where I used to bet on the baccarat game and at the same time took a shot on my P.C screen. The table in between

Should the U.S. Legalize Marijuana?

People kill people!” – NRA

As far as first graders having guns – I don’t suppose you’ve read about the ones who have killed their classmates in past years over nonsense, or have killed their parents because they were prohibited from spending a night at a friends or going to a party.

I also cannot agree that it is in any way Addictive. Dupont’s Annual Report urged stockholders to invest in its new petrochemical division. “Guns don’t kill people… I take offense to anyone who makes such “Illogical” statements (PERIOD), let alone illogical and “Ideological” statements about Marijuana making people “Dumber” and that people who use/have used Marijuana are “Dumb”.

All I can say is God must LOVE ignorance because he created so much of it in humans.

I have read quite a number of the replies here and I can agree with many but disagree with an equal number.

QUOTE: “Cigarettes and alcohol are much harder to abuse, compared to marijuana.”

A good example of how Backwards this country is in its ideas on Marijuana:

A good friend of mine was arrested on a Minor Possession (a pipe and less than a pipe full of Marijuana) and received 6 months in jail. But most people I know who drink have had at least one DUI, including myself.

I can also agree with the reply about asking any cop about using force against someone on Marijuana v.s someone on Alcohol.

It is my opinion that – The majority of doctors, researchers, scientists, etc., who make such claims are generally against it to begin with from personal opinion and belief instilled by the ideas, opinions, and ideologies of others, have never used it themselves, and because of the propaganda, never will.

QUOTE – “William Randolph Hearst (Citizen Kane) and the Hearst Paper Manufacturing Division of Kimberly Clark owned vast acreage of timberlands. it is the person pulling the trigger who is in command. mother/fathers smoking marijuana endanger their kids, driving while smoking marijuana endangers kids (and others), marijuana is a starter drug that will lead to doing other drugs… they STOLE the land and killed its inhabitants and then DICTATED where the rest of the original inhabitants could live and how.

Now, they are doing it to their own people as well as trying to tell the rest of the world how to live and act (which is actually laughable due to the fact that they can’t get it right themselves).

“Prohibition” should have been a good example of human nature to defend and propagate something they want to do, and usually will do regardless. especially the “Diminished or extinguished sexual pleasure”.

Alcohol, Crack, Cocaine, Meth, Heroin, and many other drugs do this but I have never heard of anyone ever complaining of “Impotence” or diminished or extinguished sexual pleasure from Marijuana in anyone I have ever known. While he was there, another person was arrested on 3rd Offense DUI. If Marijuana made people Dumb or Dumber, my IQ would NOT be 139

2. I say… The average adult IQ is between 90 and 110. so the idea (and dead-end argument) that marijuana does damage to the reproductive system in humans is seriously flawed.

5. Natural hemp industrialization would have ruined over 80% of Dupont’s business. How is it harder to abuse when it is readily available over the counter?

Marijuana is no more a gateway to other drugs than “Milk is a gateway to Alcohol” – as someone else stated.

AND – Marijuana has NEVER been proven to lead to any crime other than its USE because it is illegal.

In 1937, Dupont patented the processes to make plastics from oil and coal. I would not hold a High school diploma, a 2 year Veterinary degree, and other certificates/diplomas of achievement in Carpentry, AI in Cattle, and I would not be a Computer Repair and ITT Support Technician.

4. Synthetics such as plastics, cellophane, celluloid, methanol, nylon, rayon, Dacron, etc., could now be made from oil. the very same reason why so many other things are illegal or banned… it made ‘Mary-wanna’ ” – get it?

They try to control everything from what we see and hear to sex and marriage and everything in between.

What we can and can’t do with our OWN bodies is a matter that should belong SOLELY to the individual and no one else.

All the so-called “War on Drugs” is doing is creating a flow of money for the government and government run programs while ruining the lives of decent, hard working people. Patty Hearst’s grandfather, a destroyer of nature for his own personal profit, stood to lose billions because of hemp.

Sure there are many things made illegal, things that should be and for good reason. beds that could be better used for much more serious crimes and criminals.

I have not used Marijuana for several years now… and the list goes on.”. As a matter of fact, in the 70′s was a joke going around that said quite frankly:

“Pot makes you horny… The person with the DUI (by law) should have had their license pulled for life and received a felony charge for his crime.

He got 10 days!

T E N L O U S Y D A Y S !

A year after his release, my friend was at work and during lunch picked up a news paper.

The guy who got 10 days for DUI was arrested again… ” – Read More Here:

Legalize Marijuana? … any time the Government can’t make a dollar, can’t control the availability of, can’t control the manufacture of, and can’t control the acts of the people, it creates a law (often under a guise of another agenda) that prohibits, bans, or illegalizes.

The Governments of the USA came from a country where CONTROL was a part of life… Such a statement is akin to saying “Guns kill people” – No, guns do NOT kill people…

The MAIN reason Marijuana is illegal is:

There is ONLY ONE reason the Government made Marijuana illegal… Prohibition also caused a great number of un-necessary deaths and to this day, alcohol is the leading cause of Family Violence and one of the leading causes of Motor Vehicle accidents, injuries, and deaths.

QUOTE: “Typical Marijuana Side Effects:…”

90% of those “Side Effects” can be found in LEGAL over the counter medications and Alcohol, and I can tell you that much of it is “Bogus”… this time for DUI and Involuntary Manslaughter for a head on in which the other driver did not survive.

Anyone who believes the “Propaganda” is as deluded as the propaganda itself is.

1. It is causing beds in prisons to be filled with people who are no more guilty of a crime than someone drinking smoking a cigarette… YES! By all means!

I am a middle-aged male who began using Marijuana when I was about 14 years old.

I have taken several “Psychological” exams and MENSA IQ Tests (strictly for personal interest) and, to dispute such statements…

No one can BLAME an Object for the actions of the PERSON. The Hearst Company supplied most paper products. I would not be typing in this “Debate” with a 3rd year College Writing/Reading/English Level.

3. THC has NO physical OR mental dependency – unlike Cocaine, Crack, Meth, Heroin, and many other drugs – which by the way are classed as “Narcotics” (which Marijuana is NOT).

I can also tell you that I have had MANY friends who were in Vietnam and they can all tell you that if it wasn’t for having a little “Smoke” there, they never would have made it – be it to help with an injury or simply for sanity purposes.

I have never, and no one I know has ever, had an accident while using Marijuana. I have never committed crimes “Because Of” Marijuana, nor have I ever tried other drugs “Because Of”.

This one takes the cake for “Illogical” statements based solely on believing propaganda:

QUOTE: “the absolute LAST thing that society needs is DUMBER people than we already have…and marijuana sure as heck doesn’t make anyone SMARTER…”

QUOTE: “Marijuana, just like any other drug (including alcohol), endangers the lives of children in so many ways… I would not be a father to several children… and that is because the Government of the USA is diligent in its endeavors to CONTROL all aspects of life in the world.

I am here to tell you… only because it is illegal. But, when it comes to things that are of individual choice, the government should NOT have any say in the matter.

Between Politics and Religion, I cannot even begin to define which is worse as they are BOTH a thorn and bane of human existence.

Lets face it… Take responsibility for God’s sake and stop Pointing Fingers all the time.

Marijuana does NOT endanger – it is the people who endanger each other

Column: FIFA presidency no laughing matter as would-be candidate becomes frontman for gambling

Villa’s shirt sponsor is dafabet, a name that works better in Chinese, where “dafa” means “big wealth.” Stoke and Burnley players are billboards for Bet365 and Fun88 (another name that plays on the Chinese word to get rich).

Twaddle takes a very dim view of Ginola’s Paddy Power-backed grab for FIFA.

Sports and gambling have, of course, long gone together, feeding off each other’s success and growth. That was before online bookmakers offered odds on anything and everything, from match results and goals scored to which team will win the coin toss or take the first corner, and before their relentless advertising.

And that isn’t funny at all.

Sport “matters more when there’s money on it,” it says. This was about making a splash. Bet again. In pocketing 250,000 pounds (335,000 euros; US$375,000) from bookmaker Paddy Power for this stunt, Ginola became the latest Trojan horse in the gambling and gaming industry’s creeping and creepy embrace of football.

And how about this blurb from Sky Bet, title sponsor since 2013 of England’s three divisions below the Premier League. It reads like a plug for Fifty Shades of Grey.

Asking your kids to make tea during half-time breaks won’t shield them from the bombardment, not with gambling ads flashing throughout matches on pitch-side light-boards. “It’s great for Paddy Power. It won’t happen; FIFA’s ethics rules should see to that. In the UK, which liberalized gambling advertising in 2007, adults’ exposure to gambling commercials on television soared five-fold in eight years to 2012, regulator Ofcom found. “There’s more passion, more pleasure and more pain.”

“It’s an absolute disgrace,” he said in a phone interview. After Thursday’s passing of the entry deadline, “Team Ginola” should fade away.

PARIS –  Don’t laugh. FIFA’s election and ethics rules will almost certainly keep him off the May ballot. That much was clear from the Paddy Power branding.

“I’m here today to talk about love” were the Frenchman’s seductive opening words at his campaign launch in London this month.


But that’s not the point here. Tuning in for results of football betting pools, which offered big jackpots for small stakes, was a Saturday afternoon ritual for many 20th Century English families.

. But the mere thought of the gambling industry even attempting to place a stooge at the very top of football makes the prospect of another Blatter term seem perhaps not quite so bad.

John Leicester is an international sports columnist for The Associated Press. The increase was three-fold for children aged 4-15.

Ginola has zero chance of unseating Sepp Blatter. So silky as a player for Newcastle and Tottenham; so ridiculous now with his car-crash campaign for the FIFA presidency.

“It just makes like a mockery of football.”

But the targets were our wallets and spending habits, not our hearts. There’s nothing funny about the gambling industry’s latest wheeze to sink its teeth even deeper into football and its fans.

All this in a sport grappling with the increasing danger of gambling-related match-fixing and with ample examples of gambling-addicted players who frittered away their wealth.

We’re talking here about David Ginola. 10 will pit two Asian online bookmakers against each other. Write to him at or follow him at

That is the message that football, more than most other sports, is mainlining into our homes, helped by names like Ginola and teams lending their cachet, stadiums, jerseys and players to the industry that had cash to splash when the 2008 financial crisis hobbled other sponsors.

One of those is Kevin Twaddle, a former player for Motherwell and other Scottish clubs who told his story in the biography, “Life On The Line: How to Lose a Million and So Much More.” He no longer gambles and has delivered talks to other players about the risks.

Bet. Bet some more.

But gambling advertising wasn’t as in-your-face as now. But I mean you’re talking about one of the biggest, powerfulest jobs in football and all you’re getting to hear about is Paddy Power.”

“It’s eyeballs we’re after,” 12Bet executive Rory Anderson, quoted in the Daily Mail, said when the online bookmaker became the name on Hull City’s shirt for this Premier League season.

Imagine, for a moment, a Paddy Power-financed FIFA president. What ever happened to sport for sport’s sake, for the buzz of competition, not a bet? How quaint. Whoa. Hull against Aston Villa on Feb

The Likely Cause of Addiction Has Been Discovered, and It Is Not What You Think | Johann Hari

But if you believe Bruce Alexander’s theory, the picture falls into place. You may remember it. Many people were understandably terrified; they believed a huge number of addicts were about to head home when the war ended. We would have a ferocious craving. When I looked at the addicts I love, it was always tempting to follow the tough love advice doled out by reality shows like Intervention — tell the addict to shape up, or cut them off. It’s your cage.

There is an alternative. We need now to talk about social recovery — how we all recover, together, from the sickness of isolation that is sinking on us like a thick fog.

The rats with good lives didn’t like the drugged water. The most crucial step is to get them secure housing, and subsidized jobs so they have a purpose in life, and something to get out of bed for.

But in fact some 95 percent of the addicted soldiers — according to the same study — simply stopped. Nearly fifteen years ago, Portugal had one of the worst drug problems in Europe, with 1 percent of the population addicted to heroin. But if drugs aren’t the driver of addiction — if, in fact, it is disconnection that drives addiction — then this makes no sense. Imagine if you and I and the next twenty people to pass us on the street take a really potent drug for twenty days. They would be freed. This massive war — which, as I saw, kills people from the malls of Mexico to the streets of Liverpool — is based on the claim that we need to physically eradicate a whole array of chemicals because they hijack people’s brains and cause addiction. I went to a Gamblers’ Anonymous meeting in Las Vegas (with the permission of everyone present, who knew I was there to observe) and they were as plainly addicted as the cocaine and heroin addicts I have known in my life. From the surviving friends of Billie Holiday, who helped me to learn how the founder of the war on drugs stalked and helped to kill her. The experiment is simple. Are these scientists saying chemical hooks make no difference? It was explained to me — you can become addicted to gambling, and nobody thinks you inject a pack of cards into your veins. For a century now, we have been singing war songs about addicts. Forster’s — “only connect.” But we have created an environment and a culture that cut us off from connection, or offer only the parody of it offered by the Internet. The rat is put in the cage all alone. Their message is that an addict who won’t stop should be shunned. We would be addicted. The medical patient is like the rats in the second cage. He wanted to know, if you fall into that state of addiction, is your brain hijacked, so you can’t recover? Do the drugs take you over? What happened is — again — striking. I watched this playing out in the human stories I met across the world.

But the Office of the Surgeon General has found that just 17.7 percent of cigarette smokers are able to stop using nicotine patches. But what happened next was startling. Human beings are bonding animals. In the hospital around you, there will be plenty of people also given heroin for long periods, for pain relief. The book has been praised by everyone from Elton John to Glenn Greenwald to Naomi Klein. He says we should stop talking about ‘addiction’ altogether, and instead call it ‘bonding.’ A heroin addict has bonded with heroin because she couldn’t bond as fully with anything else. They had tried a drug war, and the problem just kept getting worse.

This isn’t only relevant to the addicts I love. But what I learned on the road is that almost everything we have been told about addiction is wrong — and there is a very different story waiting for us, if only we are ready to hear it.

This has huge implications for the one-hundred-year-old war on drugs. It is relevant to all of us, because it forces us to think differently about ourselves.

It is now one hundred years since drugs were first banned — and all through this long century of waging war on drugs, we have been told a story about addiction by our teachers and by our governments. The wisest sentence of the twentieth century was E.M. Very few had rehab.

I learned it from an extraordinary mixture of people I met on my travels.

So the opposite of addiction is not sobriety. I have seen it. But when we sat together in Lisbon, he told me that everything he predicted had not come to pass — and he now hopes the whole world will follow Portugal’s example.

Here’s one example of an experiment that is happening all around you, and may well happen to you one day. Until dead. soldiers had become addicted to heroin there, according to a study published in the Archives of General Psychiatry. Until I set off three and a half years ago on a 30,000-mile journey for my new book, Chasing The Scream: The First And Last Days of the War on Drugs, to figure out what is really driving the drug war, I believed it too. In fact, he argues, addiction is an adaptation. I guess addiction felt like home to me.

One of the ways this theory was first established is through rat experiments — ones that were injected into the American psyche in the 1980s, in a famous advert by the Partnership for a Drug-Free America. It’s not you. It seems manifestly true. So they decided to do something radically different.

If you still believe — as I used to — that addiction is caused by chemical hooks, this makes no sense. Yet there are no chemical hooks on a craps table.

When I first learned about this, I was puzzled. It occurred to me as I wiped his brow, we should have been singing love songs to them all along. We will have to change ourselves.

This isn’t theoretical.

If you had asked me what causes drug addiction at the start, I would have looked at you as if you were an idiot, and said: “Drugs. The street-addict is like the rats in the first cage, isolated, alone, with only one source of solace to turn to. You can have all the addiction, and none of the chemical hooks. What, Alexander wanted to know, will happen then?

When I learned all this, I found it slowly persuading me, but I still couldn’t shake off a nagging doubt.

This gives us an insight that goes much deeper than the need to understand addicts.

After the first phase of Rat Park, Professor Alexander then took this test further. He let them use for fifty-seven days — if anything can hook you, it’s that. (The full references to all the studies I am discussing are in the book.)

But here’s the strange thing: It virtually never happens.

Everyone agrees cigarette smoking is one of the most addictive processes around.

At first, I thought this was merely a quirk of rats, until I discovered that there was — at the same time as the Rat Park experiment — a helpful human equivalent taking place. I thought I had seen it in my own life. They resolved to decriminalize all drugs, and transfer all the money they used to spend on arresting and jailing drug addicts, and spend it instead on reconnecting them — to their own feelings, and to the wider society.

The advert explains: “Only one drug is so addictive, nine out of ten laboratory rats will use it. How can this be? This new theory is such a radical assault on what we have been told that it felt like it could not be true. The rats seemed to have a few twitches of withdrawal, but they soon stopped their heavy use, and went back to having a normal life. It is a lush cage where the rats would have colored balls and the best rat-food and tunnels to scamper down and plenty of friends: everything a rat about town could want. We can all explain it. The writer George Monbiot has called this “the age of loneliness.” We have created human societies where it is easier for people to become cut off from all human connections than ever before. It’s how we get our satisfaction. The good cage saved them. If we can’t connect with each other, we will connect with anything we can find — the whirr of a roulette wheel or the prick of a syringe. From a Jewish doctor who was smuggled out of the Budapest ghetto as a baby, only to unlock the secrets of addiction as a grown man. Put a rat in a cage, alone, with two water bottles. Professor Peter Cohen argues that human beings have a deep need to bond and form connections. It forces us to change our hearts. The rise of addiction is a symptom of a deeper sickness in the way we live — constantly directing our gaze towards the next shiny object we should buy, rather than the human beings all around us.

I had a quite personal reason to set out for these answers.

But in the 1970s, a professor of Psychology in Vancouver called Bruce Alexander noticed something odd about this experiment. From a man who was kept at the bottom of a well for two years by a torturing dictatorship, only to emerge to be elected President of Uruguay and to begin the last days of the war on drugs.

Johann Hari will be talking about his book at 7pm at Politics and Prose in Washington DC on the 29th of January, at lunchtime at the 92nd Street Y in New York City on the 30th January, and in the evening at Red Emma’s in Baltimore on the 4th February.

But still, surely, I asked, there is some role for the chemicals? It turns out there is an experiment which gives us the answer to this in quite precise terms, which I learned about in Richard DeGrandpre’s book The Cult of Pharmacology. You can build a system that is designed to help drug addicts to reconnect with the world — and so leave behind their addictions. Then he took them out of isolation, and placed them in Rat Park. That’s not nothing. The chemical hooks in tobacco come from a drug inside it called nicotine. He offered all the dire warnings that we would expect from the Daily Mail or Fox News. What would happen, he wondered, if we tried this differently? So Professor Alexander built Rat Park. Decriminalization has been such a manifest success that very few people in Portugal want to go back to the old system. And it can do the same thing to you.”

If you would like more updates on the book and this issue, you can like the Facebook page:

But this new evidence isn’t just a challenge to us politically. Bruce Alexander — the creator of Rat Park — told me that for too long, we have talked exclusively about individual recovery from addiction. The main campaigner against the decriminalization back in 2000 was Joao Figueira, the country’s top drug cop. But what it reveals again is that the story we have been taught about The Cause of Addiction lying with chemical hooks is, in fact, real, but only a minor part of a much bigger picture.

When I returned from my long journey, I looked at my ex-boyfriend, in withdrawal, trembling on my spare bed, and I thought about him differently. . I watched as they are helped, in warm and welcoming clinics, to learn how to reconnect with their feelings, after years of trauma and stunning them into silence with drugs. They shifted from a terrifying cage back to a pleasant one, so didn’t want the drug any more.

One example I learned about was a group of addicts who were given a loan to set up a removals firm. It has nothing to do but take the drugs. While all the rats who were alone and unhappy became heavy users, none of the rats who had a happy environment did. Almost every time you run this experiment, the rat will become obsessed with the drugged water, and keep coming back for more and more, until it kills itself. I came home determined to tie the addicts in my life closer to me than ever — to let them know I love them unconditionally, whether they stop, or whether they can’t. But the more scientists I interviewed, and the more I looked at their studies, the more I discovered things that don’t seem to make sense — unless you take account of this new approach.

Ironically, the war on drugs actually increases all those larger drivers of addiction. It is happening. Suddenly, they were a group, all bonded to each other, and to the society, and responsible for each other’s care. It’s called cocaine. Loads of people should leave the hospital and try to score smack on the streets to meet their habit.

If we truly absorb this new story, we will have to change a lot more than the drug war. We need to connect and love. This story is so deeply ingrained in our minds that we take it for granted. There are strong chemical hooks in these drugs, so if we stopped on day twenty-one, our bodies would need the chemical. For example, I went to a prison in Arizona — ‘Tent City’ — where inmates are detained in tiny stone isolation cages (‘The Hole’) for weeks and weeks on end to punish them for drug use. She is going home to a life where she is surrounded by the people she loves. They mostly shunned it, consuming less than a quarter of the drugs the isolated rats used.

Professor Alexander argues this discovery is a profound challenge both to the right-wing view that addiction is a moral failing caused by too much hedonistic partying, and the liberal view that addiction is a disease taking place in a chemically hijacked brain. One of my earliest memories as a kid is trying to wake up one of my relatives, and not being able to. It is as close to a human recreation of the cages that guaranteed deadly addiction in rats as I can imagine. So if the old theory of addiction is right — it’s the drugs that cause it; they make your body need them — then it’s obvious what should happen. He reran the early experiments, where the rats were left alone, and became compulsive users of the drug. Time magazine reported using heroin was “as common as chewing gum” among U.S. Ever since then, I have been turning over the essential mystery of addiction in my mind — what causes some people to become fixated on a drug or a behavior until they can’t stop? How do we help those people to come back to us? As I got older, another of my close relatives developed a cocaine addiction, and I fell into a relationship with a heroin addict.

The full references and sources for all the information cited in this article can be found in the book’s extensive end-notes.

In Rat Park, all the rats obviously tried both water bottles, because they didn’t know what was in them. It doesn’t just force us to change our minds. As the Canadian doctor Gabor Mate was the first to explain to me, medical users just stop, despite months of use. An independent study by the British Journal of Criminology found that since total decriminalization, addiction has fallen, and injecting drug use is down by 50 percent. It’s the logic of the drug war, imported into our private lives. And use it. So when nicotine patches were developed in the early 1990s, there was a huge surge of optimism — cigarette smokers could get all of their chemical hooks, without the other filthy (and deadly) effects of cigarette smoking. From a transsexual crack dealer in Brooklyn who was conceived when his mother, a crack-addict, was raped by his father, an NYPD officer. It was called the Vietnam War. But in fact, I learned, that will only deepen their addiction — and you may lose them altogether. You can buy it at all good bookstores and read more at

The results of all this are now in. The same drug, used for the same length of time, turns street-users into desperate addicts and leaves medical patients unaffected. And when those prisoners get out, they will be unemployable because of their criminal record — guaranteeing they with be cut off even more. One is just water. None of them died. I’ll repeat that: injecting drug use is down by 50 percent. soldiers, and there is solid evidence to back this up: some 20 percent of U.S. Duh.” It’s not difficult to grasp. If you get run over today and you break your hip, you will probably be given diamorphine, the medical name for heroin.

Loving an addict is really hard. That’s what addiction means.

The full story of Johann Hari’s journey — told through the stories of the people he met — can be read in Chasing The Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs, published by Bloomsbury. If the chemicals drive 17.7 percent of addiction, as this shows, that’s still millions of lives ruined globally. The other is water laced with heroin or cocaine. The heroin you will get from the doctor will have a much higher purity and potency than the heroin being used by street-addicts, who have to buy from criminals who adulterate it. The drug is the same, but the environment is different. And use it. It seems obvious. It is human connection