The Company’s HorseFly Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is designed for the package delivery market as well as other commercial applications.
Workhorse Group Inc., formerly AMP Holding Inc., incorporated on November 13, 2007, is a development-stage company. The W22 chassis is designed to meet the needs of the recreational vehicle market for weight ratings up to 26,000 GVW. The W62 chassis is designed for the 19,500 to 23,500 GVW vehicle market. The Company’s chassis include W88, W22, W42 and W62. E-GEN is an electric drive that has a gasoline/propane or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine that functions as an auxiliary generator that runs when the battery reaches a certain level of depletion, the vehicle is in PARK and the key is out. Powertrain includes E-GEN and AMP E-100. The Company’s products include trucks comprising powertrain and chassis. AMP E-100, an all-electric, medium-duty truck, is the second generation electric power-train. The W42 chassis is designed for the 12,000 to 14,500 Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) vehicle market. The Company designs, develops, manufactures and sells medium-duty trucks with powertrain components under the Workhorse chassis brand. The W88 chassis is designed to meet the needs of a range of customers. It includes a single electric motor with no transmission and Lithium Ion batteries giving it a range of up to 100 miles.
The Company competes with Ford Motor Company, Freightliner, Electric Vehicles International and Smith Electric Vehicles.
The test was conducted at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility near Albuquerque, N.M., using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon.
Gathering data for the latest nuclear warhead design is as nuanced as gathering intricate computer modeling data from flight tests and as brutally honest as dropping a nuclear warhead’s shell onto a concrete slab to see if it breaks.
In its first “drop test” of the W88 warhead since 1987, Sandia researchers hoisted an unarmed version of the weapon’s re-entry body on a crane and dropped it almost 200 feet to smash onto a concrete slab below.
. It was also the first flight test unit Sandia and its partners, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kansas City Plant, and Pantex, delivered to the Navy for full-scale testing under the program.
About the Author
The second test was more straightforward — and possibly a little alarming, if you’re not familiar with nuclear weapons design tests.
And, according to a statement from the labs, the W88 Alt 370 is cleared to move forward.
What happens when you drop a nuclear warhead on concrete?
By Mark RockwellNov 04, 2014
Sandia National Labs’ 185-foot Drop Tower Facility near Albuquerque, N.M., was used to gather data on the durability of the W88 ALT 370 warhead.
Sandia said it will use vibration and shock measurement data from the test to update specifications for components in the weapon. CRAFT demonstrated how the radar performed during re-entry through plasma generated by the hypersonic speeds at which the warhead travels. It also will use the information to validate computer models designed to apply the results to other drop scenarios, since it’s not possible to replicate every possible accident in tests, according to the lab.
Mark Rockwell is a staff writer covering acquisition, procurement and homeland security.
Researchers at Sandia National Labs, who are responsible for validating designs, improving computer modeling and updating component specifications for the W88 Alt 370 (alteration), have finished gathering data from two tests for an upgraded version of the US W88 nuclear warhead used in the Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missile.
The Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT) was the first flight test of a prototype radar for the W88 ALT 370. Contact him at email@example.com or follow him on Twitter at @MRockwell4.
The test is designed to replicate a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface, according to the lab and helps develop evidence that the shell would remain safe during an accident. The June CRAFT test, according to Tim Edwards, manager for the program’s technical basis and qualification activities, was the first of several planned tests intended to demonstrate the upgraded system’s performance
As we discuss the statistics and strategies of ‘nuclear arsenals’ and ‘nuclear deterrence’ it can be hard to keep in mind the reality underlying the abstract discussions. Is it possible to imagine the degree of paranoia represented by such a standing threat? The UK government has started to spend one hundred billion pounds on rebuilding its Trident fleet of nuclear submarines, each one with the capacity to incinerate over 40 million people. In a limited nuclear war between India and Pakistan 20 million people would die from the nuclear blasts, fires, and radioactive fallout.
The US, the UK, Russia, China and France are rebuilding or upgrading their arsenals of nuclear weapons. The other four nuclear states(Pakistan, India, Israel, and North Korea) too are ‘improving’ their arsenals. The nuclear states were invited but declined to attend. The movement for an international ban is unstoppable.
The W88 is over 30 times more destructive than the bomb which wiped out Hiroshima. This is enough to wipe out the entire population of the planet many times over together with all other life forms. The other weapons of mass destruction have already been banned. As the great moral leader Desmond Tutu wrote “Nuclear weapons are an obscenity. It is the turn of the last and most destructive of them all.
Is this sane? Has the human race lost its senses? A single United States thermonuclear warhead, designated W88, has an estimated ‘yield’ of 475 kilotons2. The ‘yield’ is the destructive power expressed in tons of TNT equivalent.
The US government has 5 nuclear submarines on patrol at all times carrying 1000 times the destructive power of the Hiroshima bomb3. As awareness of the humanitarian impact grows hearts and minds are being changed worldwide. Our belief is that this process should comprise a specific timeframe, the definition of the most appropriate fora, and a clear and substantive framework, making the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons the essence of disarmament efforts. No emergency services could begin to cope There would be no relief. It is not easy to face up to the implications of these arsenals especially if you bear the primary responsibility.
The risks of ‘accidental, mistaken, unauthorised or intentional use is growing significantly due to more countries holding weapons on higher levels of combat readiness’. Getting rid of them will take courageous leadership by states but such leadership will have the support of civil society. The suffering would be indescribable and for many would go on for months and years before death. Each bomb on a major city would kill millions of people; women, children, babies, old people, everyone. It included delegations representing 146 States, the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement and civil society organizations.
1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/168600341/Bulletin-of-the-Atomic-Scientists-2013. And rather than focus on the numbers and ‘yields’ of the weapons it was wisely decided to concentrate on the effects on humanity of the use of nuclear weapons. The next logical development, as the nuclear states continue to deny their obligations to shed their arsenals, is for the non-nuclear states to proceed independently to enact a treaty outlawing these weapons internationally. It is time to take action 7.’
The first International Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was held in 2013. The security of the non-nuclear states is threatened by the irresponsible and self-focused behaviour of the 9 others. How can we ever be sure that some deranged psychopath will not gain power in one of the nuclear states and deceive him/herself into believing that it is in their best interests to make a first strike? How can we ever be sure that some terrorist organisations will not hack into the electronic control systems and carry out the launching themselves? And we now know that even a small nuclear exchange could be a lethal threat to everyone on the planet. Due to ‘…proliferation, the vulnerability of nuclear command and control networks to cyber-attacks and to human error and potential access to nuclear weapons by non-state actors, in particularly terrorist groups’ the risks are ‘growing globally’. The non-nuclear majority which do not feel the need for a lethal ‘security’ crutch have decided to take the initiative. This is being done at a time when many citizens are suffering from inadequate defences against flooding and when the social services are being radically cut back.
A single W88 could completely destroy London, Moscow or New York. What sort of people would do such a thing? What kind of human would threaten such an atrocity?
She went on to explain that the use against cities of less than one percent of existing weapons would put billions of lives in jeopardy and have a long lasting detrimental effect on both the planet’s climate and agriculture. Ray Acheson, in her closing statement on behalf of ICAN to the Second Conference included the words ‘The claim by some states that they continue to need these weapons to deter their adversaries has been exposed by the evidence presented at this conference and in Oslo as a reckless and unsanctionable gamble with our future’.
The Second Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was held in Nayarit, Mexico, on 13 and 14 February 2014. India and Pakistan sent observers.
Their brief and nightmarish ascendancy is over. These weapons must be outlawed; ‘in the past, weapons have been eliminated after they have been outlawed. The world has moved on.
The International Campaign Against Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)8 is a coalition of over 350 organisations in 90 countries. The huge burgeoning of awareness in the citizens of the world is bearing fruit.
Mexico offered to host a follow-up meeting to this conference and such is the vital importance of this approach that other states declared their intention to organise additional events on this subject.
The situation is being rendered even more dangerous by the US and Russia who keep 1,800 weapons on high alert atop long-range ballistic missiles that are ready to launch 5 to 15 minutes after receiving an order!
The nine nuclear states have over 10,000 nuclear weapons in their stockpiles1. She concluded ‘It is time to change the status quo.
After hearing presentations from a wide range of experts on the various effects of nuclear weapon detonations the conference concluded that “it is unlikely that any state or international body could address the immediate humanitarian emergency caused by a nuclear weapon detonation in an adequate manner and provide sufficient assistance to those affected.” Conference members also agreed that the effects of a nuclear weapon detonation will not be constrained by national borders but will produce significant negative regional and global effects6.
The powerful summary statement of the conference Chair pointed out that the broad participation of states and civil society reflected the burgeoning awareness that this issue is of the utmost importance to all the peoples of the world. They have had 69 years to get rid of their nuclear weapons while all that the citizens of the world hear from them are windy speeches around purported good intentions which never come to fruition. The nuclear states have become a sorry sight. She insisted that we must act to get rid of them or they will be used by accident, misunderstanding or malicious intent. By focusing attention on the humanitarian consequences of their use they are well on their way to doing so.
The only remedy is an enforced world ban on the existence of nuclear weapons.
And finally there is hope. Frozen in a realm of outdated thinking which was always inhuman; their leaders frightened and paranoid and prepared to put the survival of humanity in jeopardy simply in order to feel important and powerful as they strut, uncomprehending, on the world stage.
Citizens of the world have simultaneously become aware that the nuclear states do not intend to get rid of their nuclear weapons and that their existence imposes a permanent and intolerable threat to us all. And the fallout would have global consequences that would kill millions of people, disrupt climate patterns, and threaten global agricultural collapse4.
It is ironic that the worst offenders are the five permanent members of the ‘Security’ Council of the United Nations. Humanity owes a great debt to Norway for this initiative.
This ground-breaking and historic conference was attended by delegates from 127 countries and 70 nongovernmental organizations. He called for a ‘legally binding instrument’ and declared that the, ‘time has come to initiate a diplomatic process conducive to this goal. We believe this is the path to achieve a world without nuclear weapons’. The existence of nuclear weapons means they could be used by accident, by misunderstanding or by malicious intent. They are the very antithesis of humanity5…’
There are 9 nuclear states and there are 183 non-nuclear states.
The Third Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons will be held in Austria later this year.
Furthermore decent people round the globe know that the existence of nuclear weapons is a brooding evil which undermines the moral integrity of humankind. It is time we ban nuclear weapons.
So with these and other major forces at work there is an unstoppable movement towards banning these Armageddon machines. But these 9 are outnumbered by 20 to one
According to V.J. But Vietnamese often are family oriented, and they are family-based when comes to making decision.”
An immigrant from Vietnam, who came to the United States at the age of nine, Mai grew up in a tough neighborhood where he saw many gang activities and people suffering without health care.
Vietnamese Make Family-Based Decisions
Periyakoil agreed: “Doctors just talk to patients and don’t usually consult with their families. “I go to San Francisco, San Jose and San Leandro and bring homeless people socks and pain-relievers,” he said. “It’s my calling,” he emphasized. “However, within the Vietnamese population, I’d say it was about 20 families, which seems like a very small number but think about how withdrawn our people are.”
In particular, through a special program at Stanford University, Mai focused on helping Vietnamese seniors and family members to create advance directives for health care — documents enabling people to state how they wish to be treated at the end of life, if they become too ill to speak for themselves, and who should make their medical decisions.
In 2012, Mai attended a Palliative Care Education and Training program for improving end-of-life care, held at Stanford University School of Medicine. “I found nursing to be more of my temperament,” he said. “I’m a devout Catholic and my ultimate goal being a nurse is to save as many lives as possible and to make as much improvement and changes for as many people as possible, especially immigrant Americans.”
Stanford University, Periyakoil said, is offering this free mini-fellowship in palliative care for all members of the community.
Mai first had a difficult time making inroads, however.
“When Chi Mai applied, I was happy to see that finally a member of the Vietnamese American community was interested in helping seniors with aging well,” she said.
Are there homeless Vietnamese? “Yes, quite a few,” he answered. That they can request for more morphine, for instance. His participation turned out to have a big effect on the Vietnamese community in San Jose.
An active member of his church, Mai devotes even his extra-curricular activities to health-related projects. It took a while for people to catch on.
Mai originally wanted to be pharmacist and was accepted to Boston University, but he changed his mind. Mai, who works at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center and is a certified translator at the county hospital, originally intended his advance-directive project to help 10 people, but it ended up going beyond that number. They didn’t know that they can assign — verbally — that ‘this person will make decision for me,’ in case they are not conscious.”
Although Mai is making inroads, she noted, the needs are there and the education regarding end-of-life care and decisions are tremendous.
The ‘Silver-Brown Tsunami’
At only age 28, Chi Mai, is a dedicated registered nurse, but it’s not just his profession. “They don’t know that there are such things that can be asked [when you are hospitalized]. Mai’s project focused on helping Vietnamese American seniors to complete advance directives. “It’s sad. He invited two other nurses to his workshops to share their experiences working with seniors and the importance of the health care directive. Those are documents that aid older adults in planning ahead for their towards-the-end-of-life care and guarantees that their standards of care will be met by hospitals and medical facilities.”
According to Peryiakoil, “The boom in U.S. I wish more Vietnamese Americans will complete the Stanford Successful Aging min-fellowship as they will then be able to help their community.” . seniors is often described as the ‘silver tsunami.’ In fact, it is a ‘silver-brown tsunami’ as the population of ethnic older adults is exploding. She observed, though, “While we have many participants from the Chinese and Asian Indian communities, not many Vietnamese have applied for the successful aging training.”
For his part, Mai is currently pursuing a doctorate in nursing: “I am doing research to look at hospital policies and how to implement change to help patients, especially within the Asian community.”
“I’ve helped countless numbers of people and patients on filling out their advanced directives so I don’t have a specific number,” he said. Periyakoil, MD, director of the program, Mai’s project for training course “addresses the issue of how Vietnamese adults are unaware of the existence of advance health care directives.
Andrew Lam, author of “Perfume Dreams: Reflections on the Vietnamese Diaspora” and “Birds of Paradise Lost,” wrote this article supported by a New America Media fellowship in collaboration with the Stanford In-reach for Successful Aging through Education Program.
Many Vietnamese patients are withdrawn, he said. Once he started the project, many, many seniors expressed interest and completed advance directives with our help. Although he talked to many from all walks of life — “from church leaders to gangsters to lawyers, nobody had an idea what I was talking about.” So Mai made a poster in both English and Vietnamese and talked about the importance of filling out advance directives at his church, as well at various Vietnamese centers. It is important for all ethnic communities to work to promote successful aging for their seniors.”
“Mr. Mai practices what he called “backpack nursing.” On his free time, he carries a big backpack full of unexpected goodies. Some choose a homeless lifestyle, others lost their livelihood because of their gambling or alcohol addiction.” But the saddest part, Mai said, is to see “a whole family falling into homelessness.”
No one has ever heard of the term “Ke hoach suc khoe cho tuong lai,” which is a translation of advance health care directive, Mai recalled
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As far as first graders having guns – I don’t suppose you’ve read about the ones who have killed their classmates in past years over nonsense, or have killed their parents because they were prohibited from spending a night at a friends or going to a party.
I also cannot agree that it is in any way Addictive. Dupont’s Annual Report urged stockholders to invest in its new petrochemical division. “Guns don’t kill people… I take offense to anyone who makes such “Illogical” statements (PERIOD), let alone illogical and “Ideological” statements about Marijuana making people “Dumber” and that people who use/have used Marijuana are “Dumb”.
All I can say is God must LOVE ignorance because he created so much of it in humans.
I have read quite a number of the replies here and I can agree with many but disagree with an equal number.
QUOTE: “Cigarettes and alcohol are much harder to abuse, compared to marijuana.”
A good example of how Backwards this country is in its ideas on Marijuana:
A good friend of mine was arrested on a Minor Possession (a pipe and less than a pipe full of Marijuana) and received 6 months in jail. But most people I know who drink have had at least one DUI, including myself.
I can also agree with the reply about asking any cop about using force against someone on Marijuana v.s someone on Alcohol.
It is my opinion that – The majority of doctors, researchers, scientists, etc., who make such claims are generally against it to begin with from personal opinion and belief instilled by the ideas, opinions, and ideologies of others, have never used it themselves, and because of the propaganda, never will.
QUOTE – “William Randolph Hearst (Citizen Kane) and the Hearst Paper Manufacturing Division of Kimberly Clark owned vast acreage of timberlands. it is the person pulling the trigger who is in command. mother/fathers smoking marijuana endanger their kids, driving while smoking marijuana endangers kids (and others), marijuana is a starter drug that will lead to doing other drugs… they STOLE the land and killed its inhabitants and then DICTATED where the rest of the original inhabitants could live and how.
Now, they are doing it to their own people as well as trying to tell the rest of the world how to live and act (which is actually laughable due to the fact that they can’t get it right themselves).
“Prohibition” should have been a good example of human nature to defend and propagate something they want to do, and usually will do regardless. especially the “Diminished or extinguished sexual pleasure”.
Alcohol, Crack, Cocaine, Meth, Heroin, and many other drugs do this but I have never heard of anyone ever complaining of “Impotence” or diminished or extinguished sexual pleasure from Marijuana in anyone I have ever known. While he was there, another person was arrested on 3rd Offense DUI. If Marijuana made people Dumb or Dumber, my IQ would NOT be 139
2. I say… The average adult IQ is between 90 and 110. so the idea (and dead-end argument) that marijuana does damage to the reproductive system in humans is seriously flawed.
5. Natural hemp industrialization would have ruined over 80% of Dupont’s business. How is it harder to abuse when it is readily available over the counter?
Marijuana is no more a gateway to other drugs than “Milk is a gateway to Alcohol” – as someone else stated.
AND – Marijuana has NEVER been proven to lead to any crime other than its USE because it is illegal.
In 1937, Dupont patented the processes to make plastics from oil and coal. I would not hold a High school diploma, a 2 year Veterinary degree, and other certificates/diplomas of achievement in Carpentry, AI in Cattle, and I would not be a Computer Repair and ITT Support Technician.
4. Synthetics such as plastics, cellophane, celluloid, methanol, nylon, rayon, Dacron, etc., could now be made from oil. the very same reason why so many other things are illegal or banned… it made ‘Mary-wanna’ ” – get it?
They try to control everything from what we see and hear to sex and marriage and everything in between.
What we can and can’t do with our OWN bodies is a matter that should belong SOLELY to the individual and no one else.
All the so-called “War on Drugs” is doing is creating a flow of money for the government and government run programs while ruining the lives of decent, hard working people. Patty Hearst’s grandfather, a destroyer of nature for his own personal profit, stood to lose billions because of hemp.
Sure there are many things made illegal, things that should be and for good reason. beds that could be better used for much more serious crimes and criminals.
I have not used Marijuana for several years now… and the list goes on.”. As a matter of fact, in the 70′s was a joke going around that said quite frankly:
“Pot makes you horny… The person with the DUI (by law) should have had their license pulled for life and received a felony charge for his crime.
He got 10 days!
T E N L O U S Y D A Y S !
A year after his release, my friend was at work and during lunch picked up a news paper.
The guy who got 10 days for DUI was arrested again… ” – Read More Here: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_is_marijuana_illegal
Legalize Marijuana? … any time the Government can’t make a dollar, can’t control the availability of, can’t control the manufacture of, and can’t control the acts of the people, it creates a law (often under a guise of another agenda) that prohibits, bans, or illegalizes.
The Governments of the USA came from a country where CONTROL was a part of life… Such a statement is akin to saying “Guns kill people” – No, guns do NOT kill people…
The MAIN reason Marijuana is illegal is:
There is ONLY ONE reason the Government made Marijuana illegal… Prohibition also caused a great number of un-necessary deaths and to this day, alcohol is the leading cause of Family Violence and one of the leading causes of Motor Vehicle accidents, injuries, and deaths.
QUOTE: “Typical Marijuana Side Effects:…”
90% of those “Side Effects” can be found in LEGAL over the counter medications and Alcohol, and I can tell you that much of it is “Bogus”… this time for DUI and Involuntary Manslaughter for a head on in which the other driver did not survive.
Anyone who believes the “Propaganda” is as deluded as the propaganda itself is.
1. It is causing beds in prisons to be filled with people who are no more guilty of a crime than someone drinking smoking a cigarette… YES! By all means!
I am a middle-aged male who began using Marijuana when I was about 14 years old.
I have taken several “Psychological” exams and MENSA IQ Tests (strictly for personal interest) and, to dispute such statements…
No one can BLAME an Object for the actions of the PERSON. The Hearst Company supplied most paper products. I would not be typing in this “Debate” with a 3rd year College Writing/Reading/English Level.
3. THC has NO physical OR mental dependency – unlike Cocaine, Crack, Meth, Heroin, and many other drugs – which by the way are classed as “Narcotics” (which Marijuana is NOT).
I can also tell you that I have had MANY friends who were in Vietnam and they can all tell you that if it wasn’t for having a little “Smoke” there, they never would have made it – be it to help with an injury or simply for sanity purposes.
I have never, and no one I know has ever, had an accident while using Marijuana. I have never committed crimes “Because Of” Marijuana, nor have I ever tried other drugs “Because Of”.
This one takes the cake for “Illogical” statements based solely on believing propaganda:
QUOTE: “the absolute LAST thing that society needs is DUMBER people than we already have…and marijuana sure as heck doesn’t make anyone SMARTER…”
QUOTE: “Marijuana, just like any other drug (including alcohol), endangers the lives of children in so many ways… I would not be a father to several children… and that is because the Government of the USA is diligent in its endeavors to CONTROL all aspects of life in the world.
I am here to tell you… only because it is illegal. But, when it comes to things that are of individual choice, the government should NOT have any say in the matter.
Between Politics and Religion, I cannot even begin to define which is worse as they are BOTH a thorn and bane of human existence.
Lets face it… Take responsibility for God’s sake and stop Pointing Fingers all the time.
Marijuana does NOT endanger – it is the people who endanger each other
Villa’s shirt sponsor is dafabet, a name that works better in Chinese, where “dafa” means “big wealth.” Stoke and Burnley players are billboards for Bet365 and Fun88 (another name that plays on the Chinese word to get rich).
Twaddle takes a very dim view of Ginola’s Paddy Power-backed grab for FIFA.
Sports and gambling have, of course, long gone together, feeding off each other’s success and growth. That was before online bookmakers offered odds on anything and everything, from match results and goals scored to which team will win the coin toss or take the first corner, and before their relentless advertising.
And that isn’t funny at all.
Sport “matters more when there’s money on it,” it says. This was about making a splash. Bet again. In pocketing 250,000 pounds (335,000 euros; US$375,000) from bookmaker Paddy Power for this stunt, Ginola became the latest Trojan horse in the gambling and gaming industry’s creeping and creepy embrace of football.
And how about this blurb from Sky Bet, title sponsor since 2013 of England’s three divisions below the Premier League. It reads like a plug for Fifty Shades of Grey.
Asking your kids to make tea during half-time breaks won’t shield them from the bombardment, not with gambling ads flashing throughout matches on pitch-side light-boards. “It’s great for Paddy Power. It won’t happen; FIFA’s ethics rules should see to that. In the UK, which liberalized gambling advertising in 2007, adults’ exposure to gambling commercials on television soared five-fold in eight years to 2012, regulator Ofcom found. “There’s more passion, more pleasure and more pain.”
“It’s an absolute disgrace,” he said in a phone interview. After Thursday’s passing of the entry deadline, “Team Ginola” should fade away.
PARIS – Don’t laugh. FIFA’s election and ethics rules will almost certainly keep him off the May ballot. That much was clear from the Paddy Power branding.
“I’m here today to talk about love” were the Frenchman’s seductive opening words at his campaign launch in London this month.
But that’s not the point here. Tuning in for results of football betting pools, which offered big jackpots for small stakes, was a Saturday afternoon ritual for many 20th Century English families.
. But the mere thought of the gambling industry even attempting to place a stooge at the very top of football makes the prospect of another Blatter term seem perhaps not quite so bad.
John Leicester is an international sports columnist for The Associated Press. The increase was three-fold for children aged 4-15.
Ginola has zero chance of unseating Sepp Blatter. So silky as a player for Newcastle and Tottenham; so ridiculous now with his car-crash campaign for the FIFA presidency.
“It just makes like a mockery of football.”
But the targets were our wallets and spending habits, not our hearts. There’s nothing funny about the gambling industry’s latest wheeze to sink its teeth even deeper into football and its fans.
All this in a sport grappling with the increasing danger of gambling-related match-fixing and with ample examples of gambling-addicted players who frittered away their wealth.
We’re talking here about David Ginola. 10 will pit two Asian online bookmakers against each other. Write to him at firstname.lastname@example.org or follow him at http://twitter.com/johnleicester
That is the message that football, more than most other sports, is mainlining into our homes, helped by names like Ginola and teams lending their cachet, stadiums, jerseys and players to the industry that had cash to splash when the 2008 financial crisis hobbled other sponsors.
One of those is Kevin Twaddle, a former player for Motherwell and other Scottish clubs who told his story in the biography, “Life On The Line: How to Lose a Million and So Much More.” He no longer gambles and has delivered talks to other players about the risks.
Bet. Bet some more.
But gambling advertising wasn’t as in-your-face as now. But I mean you’re talking about one of the biggest, powerfulest jobs in football and all you’re getting to hear about is Paddy Power.”
“It’s eyeballs we’re after,” 12Bet executive Rory Anderson, quoted in the Daily Mail, said when the online bookmaker became the name on Hull City’s shirt for this Premier League season.
Imagine, for a moment, a Paddy Power-financed FIFA president. What ever happened to sport for sport’s sake, for the buzz of competition, not a bet? How quaint. Whoa. Hull against Aston Villa on Feb
But if you believe Bruce Alexander’s theory, the picture falls into place. You may remember it. Many people were understandably terrified; they believed a huge number of addicts were about to head home when the war ended. We would have a ferocious craving. When I looked at the addicts I love, it was always tempting to follow the tough love advice doled out by reality shows like Intervention — tell the addict to shape up, or cut them off. It’s your cage.
There is an alternative. We need now to talk about social recovery — how we all recover, together, from the sickness of isolation that is sinking on us like a thick fog.
The rats with good lives didn’t like the drugged water. The most crucial step is to get them secure housing, and subsidized jobs so they have a purpose in life, and something to get out of bed for.
But in fact some 95 percent of the addicted soldiers — according to the same study — simply stopped. Nearly fifteen years ago, Portugal had one of the worst drug problems in Europe, with 1 percent of the population addicted to heroin. But if drugs aren’t the driver of addiction — if, in fact, it is disconnection that drives addiction — then this makes no sense. Imagine if you and I and the next twenty people to pass us on the street take a really potent drug for twenty days. They would be freed. This massive war — which, as I saw, kills people from the malls of Mexico to the streets of Liverpool — is based on the claim that we need to physically eradicate a whole array of chemicals because they hijack people’s brains and cause addiction. I went to a Gamblers’ Anonymous meeting in Las Vegas (with the permission of everyone present, who knew I was there to observe) and they were as plainly addicted as the cocaine and heroin addicts I have known in my life. From the surviving friends of Billie Holiday, who helped me to learn how the founder of the war on drugs stalked and helped to kill her. The experiment is simple. Are these scientists saying chemical hooks make no difference? It was explained to me — you can become addicted to gambling, and nobody thinks you inject a pack of cards into your veins. For a century now, we have been singing war songs about addicts. Forster’s — “only connect.” But we have created an environment and a culture that cut us off from connection, or offer only the parody of it offered by the Internet. The rat is put in the cage all alone. Their message is that an addict who won’t stop should be shunned. We would be addicted. The medical patient is like the rats in the second cage. He wanted to know, if you fall into that state of addiction, is your brain hijacked, so you can’t recover? Do the drugs take you over? What happened is — again — striking. I watched this playing out in the human stories I met across the world.
But the Office of the Surgeon General has found that just 17.7 percent of cigarette smokers are able to stop using nicotine patches. But what happened next was startling. Human beings are bonding animals. In the hospital around you, there will be plenty of people also given heroin for long periods, for pain relief. The book has been praised by everyone from Elton John to Glenn Greenwald to Naomi Klein. He says we should stop talking about ‘addiction’ altogether, and instead call it ‘bonding.’ A heroin addict has bonded with heroin because she couldn’t bond as fully with anything else. They had tried a drug war, and the problem just kept getting worse.
This isn’t only relevant to the addicts I love. But what I learned on the road is that almost everything we have been told about addiction is wrong — and there is a very different story waiting for us, if only we are ready to hear it.
This has huge implications for the one-hundred-year-old war on drugs. It is relevant to all of us, because it forces us to think differently about ourselves.
It is now one hundred years since drugs were first banned — and all through this long century of waging war on drugs, we have been told a story about addiction by our teachers and by our governments. The wisest sentence of the twentieth century was E.M. Very few had rehab.
I learned it from an extraordinary mixture of people I met on my travels.
So the opposite of addiction is not sobriety. I have seen it. But when we sat together in Lisbon, he told me that everything he predicted had not come to pass — and he now hopes the whole world will follow Portugal’s example.
Here’s one example of an experiment that is happening all around you, and may well happen to you one day. Until dead. soldiers had become addicted to heroin there, according to a study published in the Archives of General Psychiatry. Until I set off three and a half years ago on a 30,000-mile journey for my new book, Chasing The Scream: The First And Last Days of the War on Drugs, to figure out what is really driving the drug war, I believed it too. In fact, he argues, addiction is an adaptation. I guess addiction felt like home to me.
One of the ways this theory was first established is through rat experiments — ones that were injected into the American psyche in the 1980s, in a famous advert by the Partnership for a Drug-Free America. It’s not you. It seems manifestly true. So they decided to do something radically different.
If you still believe — as I used to — that addiction is caused by chemical hooks, this makes no sense. Yet there are no chemical hooks on a craps table.
When I first learned about this, I was puzzled. It occurred to me as I wiped his brow, we should have been singing love songs to them all along. We will have to change ourselves.
This isn’t theoretical.
If you had asked me what causes drug addiction at the start, I would have looked at you as if you were an idiot, and said: “Drugs. The street-addict is like the rats in the first cage, isolated, alone, with only one source of solace to turn to. You can have all the addiction, and none of the chemical hooks. What, Alexander wanted to know, will happen then?
When I learned all this, I found it slowly persuading me, but I still couldn’t shake off a nagging doubt.
This gives us an insight that goes much deeper than the need to understand addicts.
After the first phase of Rat Park, Professor Alexander then took this test further. He let them use for fifty-seven days — if anything can hook you, it’s that. (The full references to all the studies I am discussing are in the book.)
But here’s the strange thing: It virtually never happens.
Everyone agrees cigarette smoking is one of the most addictive processes around.
At first, I thought this was merely a quirk of rats, until I discovered that there was — at the same time as the Rat Park experiment — a helpful human equivalent taking place. I thought I had seen it in my own life. They resolved to decriminalize all drugs, and transfer all the money they used to spend on arresting and jailing drug addicts, and spend it instead on reconnecting them — to their own feelings, and to the wider society.
The advert explains: “Only one drug is so addictive, nine out of ten laboratory rats will use it. How can this be? This new theory is such a radical assault on what we have been told that it felt like it could not be true. The rats seemed to have a few twitches of withdrawal, but they soon stopped their heavy use, and went back to having a normal life. It is a lush cage where the rats would have colored balls and the best rat-food and tunnels to scamper down and plenty of friends: everything a rat about town could want. We can all explain it. The writer George Monbiot has called this “the age of loneliness.” We have created human societies where it is easier for people to become cut off from all human connections than ever before. It’s how we get our satisfaction. The good cage saved them. If we can’t connect with each other, we will connect with anything we can find — the whirr of a roulette wheel or the prick of a syringe. From a Jewish doctor who was smuggled out of the Budapest ghetto as a baby, only to unlock the secrets of addiction as a grown man. Put a rat in a cage, alone, with two water bottles. Professor Peter Cohen argues that human beings have a deep need to bond and form connections. It forces us to change our hearts. The rise of addiction is a symptom of a deeper sickness in the way we live — constantly directing our gaze towards the next shiny object we should buy, rather than the human beings all around us.
I had a quite personal reason to set out for these answers.
But in the 1970s, a professor of Psychology in Vancouver called Bruce Alexander noticed something odd about this experiment. From a man who was kept at the bottom of a well for two years by a torturing dictatorship, only to emerge to be elected President of Uruguay and to begin the last days of the war on drugs.
Johann Hari will be talking about his book at 7pm at Politics and Prose in Washington DC on the 29th of January, at lunchtime at the 92nd Street Y in New York City on the 30th January, and in the evening at Red Emma’s in Baltimore on the 4th February.
But still, surely, I asked, there is some role for the chemicals? It turns out there is an experiment which gives us the answer to this in quite precise terms, which I learned about in Richard DeGrandpre’s book The Cult of Pharmacology. You can build a system that is designed to help drug addicts to reconnect with the world — and so leave behind their addictions. Then he took them out of isolation, and placed them in Rat Park. That’s not nothing. The chemical hooks in tobacco come from a drug inside it called nicotine. He offered all the dire warnings that we would expect from the Daily Mail or Fox News. What would happen, he wondered, if we tried this differently? So Professor Alexander built Rat Park. Decriminalization has been such a manifest success that very few people in Portugal want to go back to the old system. And it can do the same thing to you.”
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But this new evidence isn’t just a challenge to us politically. Bruce Alexander — the creator of Rat Park — told me that for too long, we have talked exclusively about individual recovery from addiction. The main campaigner against the decriminalization back in 2000 was Joao Figueira, the country’s top drug cop. But what it reveals again is that the story we have been taught about The Cause of Addiction lying with chemical hooks is, in fact, real, but only a minor part of a much bigger picture.
When I returned from my long journey, I looked at my ex-boyfriend, in withdrawal, trembling on my spare bed, and I thought about him differently. . I watched as they are helped, in warm and welcoming clinics, to learn how to reconnect with their feelings, after years of trauma and stunning them into silence with drugs. They shifted from a terrifying cage back to a pleasant one, so didn’t want the drug any more.
One example I learned about was a group of addicts who were given a loan to set up a removals firm. It has nothing to do but take the drugs. While all the rats who were alone and unhappy became heavy users, none of the rats who had a happy environment did. Almost every time you run this experiment, the rat will become obsessed with the drugged water, and keep coming back for more and more, until it kills itself. I came home determined to tie the addicts in my life closer to me than ever — to let them know I love them unconditionally, whether they stop, or whether they can’t. But the more scientists I interviewed, and the more I looked at their studies, the more I discovered things that don’t seem to make sense — unless you take account of this new approach.
Ironically, the war on drugs actually increases all those larger drivers of addiction. It is happening. Suddenly, they were a group, all bonded to each other, and to the society, and responsible for each other’s care. It’s called cocaine. Loads of people should leave the hospital and try to score smack on the streets to meet their habit.
If we truly absorb this new story, we will have to change a lot more than the drug war. We need to connect and love. This story is so deeply ingrained in our minds that we take it for granted. There are strong chemical hooks in these drugs, so if we stopped on day twenty-one, our bodies would need the chemical. For example, I went to a prison in Arizona — ‘Tent City’ — where inmates are detained in tiny stone isolation cages (‘The Hole’) for weeks and weeks on end to punish them for drug use. She is going home to a life where she is surrounded by the people she loves. They mostly shunned it, consuming less than a quarter of the drugs the isolated rats used.
Professor Alexander argues this discovery is a profound challenge both to the right-wing view that addiction is a moral failing caused by too much hedonistic partying, and the liberal view that addiction is a disease taking place in a chemically hijacked brain. One of my earliest memories as a kid is trying to wake up one of my relatives, and not being able to. It is as close to a human recreation of the cages that guaranteed deadly addiction in rats as I can imagine. So if the old theory of addiction is right — it’s the drugs that cause it; they make your body need them — then it’s obvious what should happen. He reran the early experiments, where the rats were left alone, and became compulsive users of the drug. Time magazine reported using heroin was “as common as chewing gum” among U.S. Ever since then, I have been turning over the essential mystery of addiction in my mind — what causes some people to become fixated on a drug or a behavior until they can’t stop? How do we help those people to come back to us? As I got older, another of my close relatives developed a cocaine addiction, and I fell into a relationship with a heroin addict.
The full references and sources for all the information cited in this article can be found in the book’s extensive end-notes.
In Rat Park, all the rats obviously tried both water bottles, because they didn’t know what was in them. It doesn’t just force us to change our minds. As the Canadian doctor Gabor Mate was the first to explain to me, medical users just stop, despite months of use. An independent study by the British Journal of Criminology found that since total decriminalization, addiction has fallen, and injecting drug use is down by 50 percent. It’s the logic of the drug war, imported into our private lives. And use it. So when nicotine patches were developed in the early 1990s, there was a huge surge of optimism — cigarette smokers could get all of their chemical hooks, without the other filthy (and deadly) effects of cigarette smoking. From a transsexual crack dealer in Brooklyn who was conceived when his mother, a crack-addict, was raped by his father, an NYPD officer. It was called the Vietnam War. But in fact, I learned, that will only deepen their addiction — and you may lose them altogether. You can buy it at all good bookstores and read more at www.chasingthescream.com.
The results of all this are now in. The same drug, used for the same length of time, turns street-users into desperate addicts and leaves medical patients unaffected. And when those prisoners get out, they will be unemployable because of their criminal record — guaranteeing they with be cut off even more. One is just water. None of them died. I’ll repeat that: injecting drug use is down by 50 percent. soldiers, and there is solid evidence to back this up: some 20 percent of U.S. Duh.” It’s not difficult to grasp. If you get run over today and you break your hip, you will probably be given diamorphine, the medical name for heroin.
Loving an addict is really hard. That’s what addiction means.
The full story of Johann Hari’s journey — told through the stories of the people he met — can be read in Chasing The Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs, published by Bloomsbury. If the chemicals drive 17.7 percent of addiction, as this shows, that’s still millions of lives ruined globally. The other is water laced with heroin or cocaine. The heroin you will get from the doctor will have a much higher purity and potency than the heroin being used by street-addicts, who have to buy from criminals who adulterate it. The drug is the same, but the environment is different. And use it. It seems obvious. It is human connection